Innocent man on Death row

Delbert Lee Tibbs was convicted in 1974 of the murder of a 27-year-old man near Fort Myers, Florida, and the rape of the man's 17-year-old female companion. Tibbs was sentence to death for the murder and life for the rape.Finally, in 1982, Lee County State Attorney Joseph D'Allesandro dismissed all charges against Tibbs and D'Allesandro's predecessor, James S. Long, who had handled the original prosecution, declared that the case had been "tainted from the beginning and the investigators knew it." If Tibbs had been retired, Long said he gladly would have testified as a defense witness for Tibbs.

Delbert Lee Tibbs was convicted in 1974 of the murder of a 27-year-old man near Fort Myers, Florida, and the rape of the man’s 17-year-old female companion. Tibbs was sentence to death for the murder and life for the rape.Finally, in 1982, Lee County State Attorney Joseph D’Alessandro dismissed all charges against Tibbs and D’Allesandro’s predecessor, James S. Long, who had handled the original prosecution, declared that the case had been “tainted from the beginning and the investigators knew it.” If Tibbs had been retired, Long said he gladly would have testified as a defense witness for Tibbs.
 30-Year Death Row Inmate Celebrates First Days of Freedom
Louis Greco died in prison following a 1965 Chelsea murder conviction and was posthumously exonerated.Louis Greco joined the Army before World War II, became a professional prizefighter, and was sent off to combat in the South Pacific. He won two Bronze Stars, a Purple Heart and came back disabled for life with a shattered ankle and no future in the ring.

With a sixth grade education, he did what a lot of broken-down fighters did in that era, he sold his muscle as an enforcer and worked as a repo man for the mob.

In 1965, Louis Greco and his co-defendants were convicted in the murder of a small-time hoodlum named Teddy Deegan in a Chelsea alley. The prosecution charged Louis Greco with being the shooter and the three others as accessories to conspiracy. Greco was sentenced to death, as were Limone and Tameleo.

Greco submitted himself to eight different lie detector tests administered by outside experts and passed all eight of them. He wasn’t even in Massachusetts at the time of the shooting; he was in Florida. Judge Gertner would declare that the FBI had deliberately withheld exculpatory evidence at the 1968 trial: namely, that its star witness, a contract killer for the Mob, was telling considerably less than the whole truth. The Justice Department task force’s discovered compelling new evidence that Greco and his co-defendants were actually innocent of the murder of Edward Deegan.

David Keaton

Dave Keaton was arrested in 1971 for the murder of an off-duty police officer at a Florida convenience store. After three days of relentless interrogation – with threats, lies, and beatings – investigators coerced a confession from him. Although details of the number of participants in the crime, the weapons used, and the location of the “getaway car” differed sharply from the state’s evidence, an all-white jury convicted and sentenced Dave to death. He was 18 years old.

david keatondone by Kenneth Reams
david keatondone by Kenneth Reams

Once he was on death row, the case against Dave quickly unraveled. Journalists revealed that the polygraph operator in his case had a history of extracting false confessions from frightened suspects without lawyers. Fingerprints from the scene and a tip from an informant led prosecutors to the real culprits, who were indicted and later convicted for the murder. Dave was granted a new trial, but without the confession, there was not enough evidence to try him and the charges were eventually dropped. Ultimately, he spent two years on death row for a crime he didn’t commit.

The first man to be exonerated from death row in the United States, Dave is an outstanding poet and an active member of Witness to Innocence. Danny Glover played him in the motion picture The Exonerated

Samuel A. Poole North Carolina Conviction: 1973, Charges Dismissed: 1974 After being convicted of first degree burglary and given a mandatory death sentence, Poole had his conviction overturned by the N.C. Supreme Court because the case lacked substantial evidence that Poole was the person who broke into the home.
Samuel A. Poole North Carolina Conviction: 1973, Charges Dismissed: 1974
After being convicted of first degree burglary and given a mandatory death sentence, Poole had his conviction overturned by the N.C. Supreme Court because the case lacked substantial evidence that Poole was the person who broke into the home.

Thomas Gladish New Mexico Conviction: 1974, Charges Dismissed:1976
Richard Greer New Mexico Conviction: 1974, Charges Dismissed: 1976
Ronald Keine New Mexico Conviction: 1974, Charges Dismissed: 1976
Clarence Smith New Mexico Conviction: 1974, Charges Dismissed: 1976
The four were convicted of murder, kidnapping, sodomy, and rape and were sentenced to death. A subsequent investigation by the Detroit News uncovered lies by the prosecution’s star witness, perjured 

ronfourPCidentification given under police pressure, and the use of poorly administered lie detector tests. A state district judge dismissed the original indictments and the men were released after the murder weapon was traced to a drifter from South Carolina who admitted to the killing. (Detroit News Magazine, 1/11/76 and Detroit News, 12/16/75). Visit Ron Keine’s Homepage

Earl Charles Georgia Conviction:
1975, Charges Dismissed 1978 :
Charles was convicted on two counts of murder and sentenced to death. He was released when evidence was found that substantiated his alibi. (State v. Charles, No. 23,392 (Ga. Super. Ct., 7/5/78)). After an investigation, the district attorney announced that he would not retry the case. Charles won a substantial settlement from city officials for misconduct in the original investigation.
Read “Capital Punishment’s Deathly Injustice” by John Boger in The Los Angeles Times

Jonathan Treadaway Arizona Conviction: 1975,
Acquitted: 1978
Treadaway was convicted of sodomy and first degree murder of a six-year-old and sentenced to death. The conviction was overturned, and he was acquitted of all charges at retrial by the jury after 5 pathologists testified that the victim probably died of natural causes and that there was no evidence of sodomy. Members of the jury reported noted that prosecutors had failed to prove that Treadaway was even inside the victims’ home. (State v. Treadaway, 568 P.2d 1061 (1977))

Gary Beeman Ohio Conviction: 1976, Acquitted: 1979
Beeman was convicted of aggravated murder and sentenced to death. He maintained that he was innocent and that Claire Liuzzo, an escaped prisoner who testified as the main prosecution witness at Beeman’s first trial, was the actual killer. In 1978 the District Court of Appeals granted Beeman a new trial, finding that Beeman’s right to cross-examine Liuzzo had been unfairly restricted at his first trial. On retrial five witnesses testified that they heard Liuzzo confess to the murder and Beeman was acquitted.

Jerry Banks Georgia Conviction: 1975, Charges Dismissed: 1980 Sentenced to death for two counts of murder. Banks’ conviction was overturned on the basis of newly discovered evidence which was allegedly known to the state. (Banks v. State, 218 S.E.2d 851 (Ga. 1975)). Banks committed suicide after his wife divorced him. His estate won a settlement from the county for the benefit of his children.



Larry Hicks Indiana Conviction: 1978, Acquitted: 1980
Hicks was convicted on two counts of murder and was sentenced to death. Two weeks prior to his scheduled execution, with the help of a volunteer attorney, Hicks received a stay. The Playboy Foundation became interested in this claim of innocence and supplied funds for a re investigation after he passed lie detector tests. At retrial, Hicks was acquitted and released after evidence established Hicks’s alibi and showed that eyewitness testimony against him at his original trial was perjured.
Read The Ordeal of Larry Hicks” by Nile Stanton, a defense attorney for Larry Hicks

Charles Ray Giddens Oklahoma Conviction: 1978, Charges Dismissed: 1981 *Giddens, an 18-year-old black man, was convicted for the murder of a grocery store cashier primarily on the testimony of Johnnie Gray, who claimed he accompanied Giddens to the murder scene. Although Gray was never indicted, Giddens was sentenced to death after an all white jury deliberated for only 15 minutes. Giddens conviction and death sentence reversed by the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, which found Gray’s testimony was unreliable and the evidence against Giddens insufficient. (Giddens v. State, No. F-78-164 (Ct. of Crim. App., 11/17/81)) The charges against Giddens were dropped.

Michael Linder South Carolina Conviction: 1979, Acquitted: 1981 Linder was convicted and sentenced to death for the murder of a highway patrol officer. The prosecution maintained that Linder shot the officer without provocation but Linder insisted that he shot the officer in self-defense after the officer fired six shots at him. At re-trial, previously undisclosed ballistics evidence form a state crime lab confirmed Linder’s self-defense theory and Linder was acquitted. (State v. Linder, 278 S.E.2d 335 (S.C. 1981)).Johnny Ross Louisiana Conviction: 1975, Charges Dismissed: 1981 *

Johnny Ross, who became the nation’s youngest death row inmate at age 16, was convicted of raping a white woman in Louisiana in 1975, and sentenced to death after his 90-minute trial. Ross met with his court appointed attorney one time prior to trial. The prosecution’s claim was that Ross had signed a confession after the victim had identified him. Ross maintained that he had signed a blank piece of paper after his interrogators beat him.

Convinced Ross did not receive a fair trial, the Southern Poverty Law Center, Inc. (SPLC) sought a new trial for Ross. Their investigations turned up evidence that the Ross’ blood type was not the same as the type in the semen found in the victim. Based on this new evidence, the New Orleans DA agreed to drop charges and Ross was released from prison in 1981. (State v. Ross, 343 So.2d 722 (La. 1977)).

Ernest (Shujaa) Graham California Conviction: 1976, Acquitted: 1981 In November 1973, while incarcerated in a state prison facility, Ernest Graham and co-defendant Eugene Allen were charged with killing a state correctional officer. Graham’s first trial resulted in a mistrial when the jury could not agree on a verdict. Graham was sentenced to death in 1976 after his second trial. The Supreme Court of California reversed the conviction because prosecutors improperly used their peremptory challenges to exclude prospective jurors who were black. Graham and Allen, who are both black, “belonged to the group whose members the district attorney had excluded whereas the alleged victim was a member of the group to which [all] of the remaining jurors belong.” (People v. Allen, 590 P.2d 30, 34 (Cal.1979) (internal citations omitted)). Graham’s third trial ended in another hung jury, and he was acquitted by the jury in his fourth trial. (Phone conversation with now Magistrate-Judge James Larson, October 6, 2003, who represented Graham). Visit Shujaa Graham’s Homepage See “Shujaa Graham” by Journey of Hope

Anthony Brown Florida Conviction: 1983, Acquitted: 1986 

Brown was convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to death despite a jury recommendation of life imprisonment. At trial, the only evidence against Brown was a co-defendant who was sentenced to life for his part in the crime. At retrial, the co-defendant admitted that his testimony at the first trial had been perjured, and Brown was acquitted. (Brown v. State, 471 So.2d 6 (Fla. 1985)).
Read “The Other 13 Survivors…” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times

Neil Ferber
Pennsylvania Conviction: 1982, Charges Dismissed: Ferber was convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to death. Upon urging by the district attorney, the trial judge ordered a new trial. The charges against Ferber were dropped prior to the retrial when evidence surfaced that the conviction was based on the perjured testimony of a jail-house informant, exculpatory evidence was not disclosed to the defense, and an eyewitness to the crime was positive that Ferber was not the man she saw. Several other prosecutors and a homicide detective were convinced of Ferber’s innocence. (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 8/18/96).

 Clifford Henry Bowen Oklahoma Conviction: 1981, Charges Dismissed: 1986
Bowen was incarcerated in the Oklahoma State Penitentiary under three death sentences for over five years when the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit finally overturned his conviction in 1986. The Court held that prosecutors in the case failed to disclose information about another suspect, Lee Crowe, and that had the defense known of the Crowe materials, the result of the trial would probably have been different. Crowe resembled Bowen, had greater motive, no alibi, and habitually carried the same gun and unusual ammunition as the murder weapon. Bowen, on the other hand, maintained his innocence, provided twelve alibi witnesses to confirm that he was 300 miles from the crime scene just one hour prior to the crime, and could not be linked by any physical evidence to the crime. (Bowen v. Maynard, 799 F.2d 593 (10th Cir. 1986) and Oklahoma Publishing Co., 7/31/87).
Read “Cowboy Bob…” by Ken Armstrong in The Chicago Tribune


Michael Graham spent 14 years, most of his adult life, on death row in Louisiana for the brutal murders of an elderly couple, a crime he did not commit.

Represented at trial by two inexperienced attorneys, one of whom abandoned the case before the sentencing phase, Graham was convicted of murder in 1987.
The case against Graham consisted of three witnesses, who later recanted their testimony, and a prosecution that withheld evidence of his innocence.
In March of 2000, with the help of pro-bono lawyers, Graham won a new trial. He was freed from prison nine months later on December 28th.
After 14 years of wrongful imprisonment, the state of Louisiana gave Graham a $10 check and an overcoat that was five sizes too big. By the time of his release, Graham had spent half of his adult life on death row.
United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary: Testimony of Michael Graham, Freed Death Row Inmate In Support of the Innocence Protection Act June 27, 2001:

Joseph Green Brown Florida Conviction: 1974, Charges Dismissed: 1987 Charges were dropped after the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the prosecution had knowingly allowed false testimony to be introduced at trial. Brown was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to death on the testimony of Ronald Floyd, a co-conspirator who claimed he heard Brown confess to the murder. Floyd later retracted and admitted his testimony was lie. Brown came within 13 hours of execution when a new trial

Albert Burrell“an illiterate man with mild retardation” spent 13-years on death row, convicted for the same two counts of murder that Michael Graham was sent to death row, a crime he did not commit.A tip from his ex-wife Janet, led authorities to charge Albert Burrell with killing the elderly Union Parish couple, Delton and Callie Frost.Albert Burrell denied the charges, just as he has ever since that night in 1986. He claimed his ex-wife made up a story about him so she could get custody of five-year old son, Charles.

“She always lied. I just know she was wrong for what she did,” Albert Burrell said recently. “She was scared they’d take her kids away from her.”
Within a year, Albert Burrell was convicted and sentenced to die at the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola. Charles did not see his dad for 13 years, only speaking to him once on the phone during that time.
Later, it was found the blood at the scene did not match Burrell’s DNA, in addition to the trial testimony being false and the prosecutors had withheld key evidence (both men’s original trial lawyers had been disbarred).
After an 8-month investigation, the state Attorney General’s Office dismissed charges and District Judge Cynthia Woodard said there wasn’t enough physical evidence tying Albert Burrell, 45, to the 1987 slayings of William and Callie Frost. DNA tests of blood found at the Frosts’ home proved it did not match the blood of Burrell or Graham.
“I can hardly believe it,” Burrell said as he left the Louisiana State Penitentiary.

Laurence Adams spent 30 years in prison–one of those years on death row–for a crime he did not commit. Adams escaped execution because Massachusetts had abolished capital punishment soon after he was sentenced.

In March 1974, Laurence Adams was convicted and sentenced to death as one of allegedly three men who had beaten, robbed, and killed a subway porter in Boston in 1972.

In March 1973, Harry Ambers confessed to the crime and implicated Adams along with his own brother, Warren Ambers as his accomplices. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts eliminated the death penalty one year after Adams’ conviction and his sentence was changed to life imprisonment.

Adams was further implicated in the murder by the testimony of Prosecution witnesses, Wyatt Moore and his sister Lynne (Suzie) Moore, who testified that Adams had admitted to committing the crime with the Ambers brothers. Exculpatory evidence in the files of the Boston Police Department was not revealed until decades later. This included the fact that Suzie recanted her trial testimony, admitting that she had testified to help get her brother out of jail. Wyatt was being held on serious felony charges, (and he was released the day after Adams’ trial). In fact, Wyatt Moore was in prison on the same date Adams allegedly confessed his participation in the crime to the Moores. Police further withheld a sworn statement from a witness who said that Harry Ambers had confessed that he and his brother Warren alone had committed the murder.

In May, 2004, the Superior Court Justice allowed a Motion for Post conviction Relief and ordered a new trial because records, witness statements, and police reports that had not been disclosed were considered newly discovered evidence. However, in June the district attorney announced that, “the state was dropping the case because witnesses are dead and physical evidence is lacking,” (Boston Herald, June 8, 2004, at 26). Adams was released after 30 years of incarceration.

Lawyer Johnson Massachusetts Conviction: 1971, Charges Dismissed: 1982

Lawyer Johnson
Lawyer Johnson was sentenced to death by an all white jury for the murder of James Christian, a white victim. In 1982, the charges were dropped when a previously silent eyewitness, Dawnielle Montiero, who was 10 years old when the murder was committed, says the real killer, Kenneth Myers, was the man who testified against Johnson in two previous trials, the state’s chief witness as the actual killer.
Johnson has said all along that he was not at the scene, but in two trials could not prove it so he spent ten years incarcerated for a crime he did not commit.
In 1983, a bill was filed to obtain compensation for Johnson’s wrongful conviction. (Commonwealth v. Johnson, 429 N.E.2d 726 (1982))

A former death row inmate who became a spokesman against the death penalty has been arrested again over the alleged murder of his wife. Joseph Brown was held after Mamie, his wife of 20 years, was found dead in her apartment on Thursday. He now faces the death penalty for the second time if convicted of the crime which has left both their families in shock. Officers found the 71-year-old woman lying on the floor suffering from apparent trauma. She was pronounced dead at the scene. Brown was released from death row in 1987 for a wrongful rape and murder conviction and spent his life campaigning for reform of the penal system. He found God, took the name Shabaka and frequently spoke out against the finality of the death penalty, including a passionate speech to a Congressional Judiciary subcommittee. Prominent lawyers involved in his case also changed their minds about capital punishment due to his pleas. In one interview Brown said: ‘I’m against killing, period, whether the violence is by individuals, the state, or armies in warfare. All life is sacred.’ The body of Mrs Brown, 71, was discovered after police were asked to check on her. Her husband was arrested late on Friday at a hotel in Charleston, South Carolina. Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

 Perry Cobb
(l.) Illinois Conviction: 1979, Acquitted: 1987
Darby (Jesse) Tillis (r.) Illinois Conviction: 1979, Acquitted: 1987

After two mistrials because of hung juries, Cobb and Williams were convicted and sentenced to death for the first degree robbery and murder of two white men in 1977. In 1983, the State Supreme Court reversed the convictions, and after several retrials where an assistant state attorney testified that the government’s key witness, Phyllis Santini, had told him that her boyfriend actually committed the murders, Cobb and Williams were acquitted and released. (People v. Cobb, 455 N.E.2d 31 (Ill. 1983) and Chicago Tribune, 1/21/87).
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction
Read “A Broken System: Darby Tillis and Perry Cobb” by The Justice Project
UPDATE: Tillis died on Nov. 9, 2014.

Vernon McManus Texas Conviction: 1977, Charges Dismissed: 1987 After a new trial was ordered, the prosecution dropped the charges when a key prosecution witness refused to testify.

Anthony Ray Peek Florida Conviction: 1978, Acquitted: 1987* Peek was convicted of murder and sentenced to death, despite witnesses who supported his alibi. His conviction was overturned when expert testimony concerning hair identification evidence was shown to be false. He was acquitted at his third retrial. (Peek v. State, 488 So.2d 52 (Fla. 1986)).

Read “The Other 13 Survivors…” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times

Robert Wallace Georgia Conviction: 1980, Acquitted: 1987 *

Wallace was convicted and sentenced to death for the slaying of a police officer, despite his claim that the shooting was accidental and that he was acting in self-defense because he was beaten by the officers. The 11th Circuit ordered a retrial because Wallace had not been competent to stand trial. He was acquitted at the retrial because it was found that the shooting was accidental. (Wallace v. Kemp, 757 F.2d 1102 (1985) and Associated Press, 6/18/87).


 Richard Neal Jones Oklahoma Convicted: 1983, Acquitted: 1988 Jones was sentenced to death in Oklahoma in 1983. Jones maintains that he was passed out while his three co-defendants murdered Charles Keene. On appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeals of Oklahoma remanded the case for retrial. The Court held the jury was prejudiced by the improper admission of hearsay testimony and inflammatory photographs. The Court also agreed with Jones’ assertion that the case should be remanded on the basis of prosecutorial misconduct. Moreover, the Court held, the case was not one in which Jones’ guilt was “overwhelming” and that Jones’ involvement was disputed by the evidence. (Jones v. State, 738 P.2d 525 (Okla. crim. app. 1987) and Oklahoma Publishing Co., 1/18/88).


. Willie Brown Florida Conviction: 1983, Charges Dismissed: 1988
Larry Troy Florida Conviction: 1983, Charges Dismissed: 1988

Brown and Troy were sentenced to death after being accused of fatally stabbing a fellow prisoner. The main witness against them was Frank Wise, whose original statements exonerated the men. Pending retrial, the charges against the men were dropped when Wise admitted that he had perjured himself. (Brown v. State, 515 So.2d 211 (Fla. 1987).
Read “The Other 13 Survivors…” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times


 Randall Dale Adams Texas Conviction: 1977, Charges Dismissed: 1989 Adams was convicted of killing a Dallas Police officer and sentenced to death. After the murder David Harris was arrested for the murder when it was learned that he was bragging about it. Harris, however, claimed that Adams was the killer. Adams trial lawyer was a real estate attorney and the key government witnesses against Adams were Harris and other witnesses who were never subject to cross examination because they disappeared the next day. On appeal, Adams was ordered to be released pending a new trial by the Texas Court of Appeals. The prosecutors did not seek a new trial due to substantial evidence of Adam’s innocence. Adams case is the subject of the movie, The Thin Blue Line. (Ex Parte Adams, 768 S.W.2d 281 (Tex. Crim App. 1989), Time, 4/3/89, and ABA Journal, 7/89).

See “Randall Dale Adams” by Journey of Hope

Robert Cox Florida Conviction: 1988, Charges Dismissed: 1989 Cox was convicted and sentenced to death, despite evidence that Cox did not know the victim and no one testified that they had been seen together. In 1989, Cox was released by a unanimous decision of the Florida Supreme Court that the evidence was insufficient to support his conviction. (Cox v. State, 555 So.2d 352 (Fla. 1989)).

Read “The Other 13 Survivors…” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times

James Richardson Florida Conviction: 1968, Charges Dismissed:1989  Richardson was convicted and sentenced to death for the poisoning of one of his children. The prosecution argued that Richardson committed the crime to obtain insurance money, despite the fact that no such policy existed. The primary witnesses against Richardson were two jail-house snitches whom Richardson was said to have confessed to. Post-conviction investigation found that the neighbor who was caring for Richardson’s children had a prior homicide conviction, and the defense provided affidavits from people to whom he had confessed. Richardson’s conviction was thrown into further doubt when the governor appointed then-Dade County District Attorney Janet Reno to conduct a special investigation.  She concluded Richardson’s conviction should be vacated.  At a subsequent court hearing, the court overturned his conviction, and no further charges were raised in the case. See Richardson v. State, 546 So.2d 1037 (1989).
Read “Life After Death Row” by Sara Rimer in The New York Times Magazine


Clarence Brandley Texas Conviction: 1981, Charges Dismissed: 1990 Brandley was awarded a new trial when evidence showed prosecutorial suppression of exculpatory evidence and perjury by prosecution witnesses. An investigation by the Department of Justice and the FBI uncovered more misconduct, and in 1989 a new trial was granted. Prior to the new trial, all of the charges against Brandley were dropped. Brandley is the subject of the book White Lies by Nick Davies. (Ex Parte Brandley, 781 S.W.2d 886 (Tex. Crim App. 1989),The Dallas Times Herald, 10/2/90, and Washington Post, 2/1/95).

John C. Skelton Texas Conviction: 1983, Acquitted: 1990
Despite several witnesses who testified that he was 800 miles from the scene of the murder, Skelton was convicted and sentenced to death for killing a man by exploding dynamite in his pickup truck. The evidence against him was purely circumstantial and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals found that it was insufficient to support a guilty verdict. The Court reversed the conviction and entered a directed verdict of acquittal. (Skelton v. State, 795 S.W.2d 162 (Tex. Crim. App. 1989) and The Dallas Morning News, 10/25/90).

Jimmy Lee Mathers Arizona Convicted: 1987, Acquitted: 1990
Jimmy Lee Mathers was convicted of first degree murder in 1987 and sentenced to death along with two co-defendants. At trial, Mathers moved for a judgment of acquittal at the close of the prosecution’s case, maintaining that the state had not presented eviden

ce sufficient to support a conviction. The motion was denied, and all three men were found guilty and sentenced to death. Mathers’ case was reviewed by the Arizona Supreme Court in 1990, and viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to the prosecution, the Court found that there was a complete absence of probative facts to support Mathers’ conviction. The Court stated that most of the evidence presented at trial had “nothing to do with Mathers” and noted that even the trial judge expressed doubt as to whether Mathers was involved in the crime. The Court set aside Mathers’ conviction and sentence and entered a judgment of acquittal. (State v. Mathers, 796 P.2d 866 (Ariz. 1990)) One of Mathers’ co-defendants, Theodore Washington, has raised a similar claim about the insufficiency of the evidence against him, but remains on death row.


Gary Nelson Georgia Conviction: 1980, Charges Dismissed: 1991 *Nelson was released after a review of the prosecutor’s files revealed that material information had been improperly withheld from the defense. The county district attorney acknowledged: “There is no material element of the state’s case in the original trial which has not subsequently been determined to be impeached or contradicted.” (Nelson v. Zant, 405 S.E.2d 250 (Ga. 1991) and The Atlanta Journal, 11/7/91).


 Bradley P. Scott Florida Conviction: 1988, Acquitted: 1991  Scott was convicted of murder and sentenced to death. His arrest came ten years after the crime, when the evidence corroborating his alibi had been lost. Scott was convicted on the testimony of witnesses whose identifications had been plagued with inconsistencies. On appeal, he was released by the Florida Supreme Court, which found that the evidence used to convict Scott was not sufficient to support a finding of guilt. (Scott v. State, 581 So.2d 887 (Fla. 1991)).Read Court TV’s Interview with Bradley Scott Read “We Don’t Look Back” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times

Charles Smith Indiana Conviction: 1983, Acquitted: 1991
Smith was sentenced to death for a street robbery and murder of a woman. The man who claimed to be the getaway driver had his charges dropped in exchange for testifying against Smith. The Indiana Supreme Court overturned his conviction in 1989 because of ineffective assistance of counsel. (Smith v. State, 547 N.E.2d 817 (Ind. 1989). He was acquitted at his re-trial and released in 1991 after presenting evidence that witnesses against him had lied under oath. (information not available at time of DPIC’s innocence report) (The Journal-Gazette (Indiana), 5/10/91 and Capitol Report, May/June 1991).

 Jay C. Smith Pennsylvania Conviction: 1986, Acquitted: 1992 

Smith, a former high school principal, was convicted of the 1979 murder of 3 people, though his death sentence was later reduced to life. He was freed on Sept. 18, 1992 after the Pennsylvania Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the prosecution had withheld crucial evidence, calling the state’s action “egregious” misconduct. (Commonwealth v. Smith, 615 A.2d 321 (Pa. 1992) and Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 9/17/93).
Read “Court Frees Jay Smith” by Pete Shellem and Laird Leask in The Patriot News
Read “Author Paid Trooper Probing Reinert Case” by Pete Shellem and Laird Leask in The Patriot News
Read “Evidence Surfaces in Reinert Case” by Pete Shellem and Laird Leask in The Patriot News


Kirk BloodsworthMaryland Conviction: 1984, Charges Dismissed: 1993  Bloodswoth was convicted and sentenced to death for the rape and murder of a young girl. Despite alibi witnesses, he was convicted primarily on the basis of faulty eyewitness identification. When it was discovered that the state failed to disclose exculpatory evidence, Bloodsworth received a new trial, at which he was convicted and given a life sentence. He was released after subsequent DNA testing confirmed his innocence. (The Washington Post, 6/29/93).Read “Bloodsworth: The True Story of the First Death Row Inmate Exonerated by DNA” by Tim Junkin

Read “Life After Death Row” by Sara Rimer in The New York Times Magazine

Federico M. Macias Texas Conviction: 1984, Charges Dismissed: 1993 Macias was convicted and sentenced to death for the murder of a man during a burglary. Macias was implicated by a co-worker, who in exchange for his testimony was not prosecuted for the murders, and from jail-house informants. Post-conviction investigation by pro bono attorneys discovered substantial evidence of inadequate counsel. A federal district court ordered a new hearing finding that “[t]he errors that occurred in this case are inherent in a system which pays attorneys such a meager amount.” Macias’s conviction was overturned and a grand jury refused to reindict because of lack of evidence. (Marinez-Macias v. Collins, 810 F Supp. 782 (W.D. Tex. 1991), National Law Journal, 5/20/96, and University of Massachusetts Alumni Magazine, Spring 1994).

Read “The Difference a Million Makes” by Adam Cohen in Time Magazine

Walter (Johnny D) McMillian
Alabama Conviction: 1988, Charges Dismissed: 1993 *
McMillian, a black man, was convicted for the murder of a white female after a trial that lasted only a day and a half. At trial, three witnesses testified against McMillian and the jury ignored multiple alibi witnesses that testified McMillian was at a picnic. Although the jury recommended a life sentence, the judge imposed a sentence of death. Post-conviction investigation by the television show 60 Minutes revealed prosecutorial suppression of exculpatory information and perjury by the state’s three witnesses. Macmillan’s conviction was overturned by the Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals and prosecutors agreed case had been mishandled. (McMillian v. State, 616 So.2d 933 (Ala. Crim. App. 1993), New York Times, 3/3/93, and ABA Journal 6/93).
Read “Life After Death Row” by Sara Rimer in The New York Times Magazine

Gregory R. Wilhoit  Oklahoma Conviction: 1987, Acquitted: 1993 Convicted of killing his estranged wife while she slept. His conviction was overturned and he was released in 1991 when 11 forensic experts testified that a bite mark found on his dead wife did not belong to him. The appeals court also found ineffective assistance of counsel. He was acquitted at a retrial in April, 1993. (Wilhoit v. State, 816 P.2d 545 (Okla. Crim. App. 1991) and The Daily Oklahoman, 4/1/93).UPDATE: Greg Wilhoit died in February 2014.


James Robison
Arizona Conviction: 1977, Acquitted: 1993
Robison was convicted of murder and conspiracy in 1977 in the death of a reporter, Don Bolles. His conviction was overturned in 1980, but he was recharged with the offense in 1990. He was acquitted at retrial in December, 1993. (State v. Robison, 608 P.2d 44 (Ariz. 1980) and The Dallas Morning News, 12/18/93)

Muneer Deeb was originally sentenced to death for allegedly contracting with three hitmen to kill his ex-girlfriend. The hitmen were also convicted and one was sentenced to death. Deeb consistently claimed no involvement in the crime. Deeb’s conviction was overturned by the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals in 1991 because improper evidence had been admitted at his first trial. With an experienced defense attorney, Deeb was retried and acquitted in 1993. (Deeb v. State, 815 S.W.2d 692 (Tex. Crim. App. 1991) and The Dallas Morning News, 11/4/93).


Andrew Golden Florida Conviction: 1991, Charges Dismissed: 1994 Andrew Golden spent 26 months on Florida’s death row, convicted in 1991 for the murder of his wife in 1989. According to Golden, his wife, Ardelle, died after accidentally driving down an unmarked, unlit boat ramp into the water. Prosecutors argued that Golden, heavily in debt, had killed Ardelle to collect on the life insurance. Police investigators and the medical examiner testified at the trial that the evidence did not suggest foul play (Life Magazine, October 1994). Nonetheless, the jury opted for the prosecutor’s version of the story and sentenced Golden to die in the electric chair.

Golden, a high school teacher in Florida before the death of his wife, had his conviction was overturned by the Florida Supreme Court in 1993. The Court held that the state had failed to prove that the victim’s death was anything but an accident. Golden was released into the waiting arms of his sons on January 6, 1994. (Golden v. State, 629 So.2d 109 (Fla. 1993)).
Read “The Other 13 Survivors…” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times


Adolph Munson Oklahoma Conviction: 1985, Acquitted: 1995 Adolph ‘Abe’ Munson, was convicted in 1985 for the murder of Alma Hall, who was abducted during her all-night shift at a local convenience store. Munson became a suspect once police realized that, at the time of the crime, he was on a work release program run by an Oklahoma prison where he was serving time for a barroom murder.

Oklahoma’s highest criminal appeals court unanimously upheld a lower court ruling granting Munson a new trial. The ruling by the Criminal Court of Appeals cited a “significant amount” of exculpatory evidence that was kept from Munson at the original trial. (Oklahoma v. Munson, 886 P.2d 999 (Okla. Crim. App. 1994)). The exculpatory evidence, according to Judge Charles S. Chapel, who wrote the court’s opinion, “revealed photographs of the crime scene at odds with the State’s theory of the case, reports on the other suspects and impeachment evidence.” (Oklahoma v. Munson, 886 P.2d 999 (Okla. Crim. App. 1994)). Furthermore, Dr. Ralph Erdmann, the paleontologist who presented the forensic evidence at trial, was convicted of seven felony counts including the misrepresentation of facts in other cases and stripped of his license.

Munson was acquitted at a re-trial in April 1995.

(ABA Journal December 1993 , ABA Journal February 1995, and The Oklahoma Observer April 25, 1995).

Robert Charles Cruz Arizona Conviction: 1981, Acquitted: 1995* Robert Charles Cruz, a former Tempe businessman, won instant freedom after more than 14 years behind bars as jurors returned verdicts acquitting him of murder and other charges. This was the fifth trial for the former death-row inmate accused in the 1980 contract killing of a Phoenix print-shop owner and his mother-in-law. His previous five trials included two convictions and two mistrials, before his acquittal on June 1, 1995.

Prosecutors claimed that Cruz hired and paid three men to kill Patrick Redmond and Helen Phelps, co-owners of Graphic Dimensions, in a plot to take over the business. Jurors said the overriding reason for acquitting Cruz was the lack of credibility of some witnesses (The Arizona Republic, June 2, 1995). The chief prosecution witness, Arnie Merrill, was a convicted burglar and former drug dealer who was given immunity for his testimony. The absence of motive and the lack of a physical evidence connecting Cruz to the murders weighed heavily on jurors as they voted to acquit.

“This is justice,” said Kevin McNally, one of Cruz’s lawyers. “This is the right decision.”

(State v. Cruz, 857 P.2d 1249 (Ariz. 1993), and The Arizona Republic, June 2, 1995).

Rolando Cruz Illinois Conviction: 1985, Acquitted: 1995
Cruz was sentenced to death for the murder of 10-year-old Jeanine Nicarico. Another man, Brian Dugan, who had already pled guilty to two rapes and murders, including that of an 8-year-old girl, authorized his lawyer to tell the prosecutors that he killed Nicarico. Cruz was convicted at a second trial in 1990, at which Dugan did not testify. In July, 1994, the state Supreme Court overturned Cruz’s second conviction. (People v. Cruz, 643 N.E.2d 636 (1994). An assistant state attorney general resigned because she thought the evidence showed Cruz was innocent and thought it wrong to pursue the prosecution. Other law enforcement officials also protested the continued efforts to prosecute Cruz. Cruz was finally acquitted at his retrial in November, 1995. The judge did not even wait for the defense to put on its case before entering a directed verdict of not guilty. (People v. Cruz, 88 CF 2230). Three prosecutors and four law enforcement officers involved with the prosecution of Cruz and his co-defendant (see below) have been indicted for obstruction of justice in this case. (The American Lawyer, 3/98 and National Law Journal 11/20/95). 

Read “Life After Death Row” by Sara Rimer in The New York Times Magazine
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction
Read “A Broken System: Rolando Cruz and Alejandro Hernandez” by The Justice Project

 Alejandro Hernandez Illinois Conviction: 1985, Charges Dismissed: 1995 Hernandez was sentenced to death along with Rolando Cruz for the murder of Jeanine Nicarico in 1983. Hernandez was re-tried in 1990, but the trial ended in a hung jury. A third trial in 1991 resulted in a conviction and an 80 year prison sentence. The conviction was overturned by the Illinois Supreme Court in January, 1995. Only his own indirect statements, not any direct physical evidence, linked Hernandez, who is borderline retarded, to the killing. He was released on bond, and charges were subsequently dropped on Dec. 8, 1995. The man who has confessed to the murder of Jeanine Nicarico, and whose DNA has been linked to the crime, has not been charged in the case. The U.S. Dept. of Justice is considering an investigation into civil rights violations in this case. (People v. Hernandez, 521 N.E.2d 25 (Ill. 1988), Associated Press, 12/8/95, and The National Law Journal, 1/1/96).
Read “A Broken System: Rolando Cruz and Alejandro Hernandez” by The Justice Project

Sabrina Butler Mississippi Conviction: 1990, Acquitted: 1995 Sabrina Butler was 17 years old when her 9-month old son, who had a heart murmur, stopped breathing. After attempts to resuscitate her son, Butler rushed to the hospital, where the young child was pronounced dead. The following day Butler was arrested for child abuse due to the bruises left by her resuscitation attempts. She was interrogated by the police and then prosecuted. Then, in 1990, she was convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death.

Her conviction was overturned by the Mississippi Supreme Court in 1992. (Butler v. State, 608 So.2d 314 (Miss. 1992)). The court said that the prosecution had failed to prove that the incident was anything more than an accident. At re-trial, she was acquitted on Dec. 17, 1995 after a very brief jury deliberation. It is now believed that the baby may have died either of cystic kidney disease or from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).


Joseph Burrows Illinois Conviction: 1989, Charges Dismissed: 1996

Joseph Burrows was sentenced to death in 1989 for the 1988 murder of an 88-year-old man, William Dulin. Burrows spent five years on death row before a judge in Kankakee, Illinois, ordered a new trial for Burrows after key witnesses recanted their testimony. Considering that no physical evidence linked Burrows to the crime, the testimony of the eyewitnesses was crucial.  He was convicted largely on the testimony of Gayle Potter and Ralph Frye, who received lighter sentences in exchange for testifying. Ms. Potter confessed in July of 1994 that she alone had committed the murder. Mr. Frye recanted his testimony as well, claiming that prosecutors and police officers had coerced him into providing testimony (New York Times, September 11, 1994).

Judge John F. Michela released Burrows in September of 1994, while Burrows was awaiting his new trial. The Prosecutor in the case, Charles Zalar, acknowledged that the only evidence against Mr. Burrows was the eyewitness accounts, “we don’t have much without them.” (New York Times, September 25, 1994). The Illinois Supreme Court upheld the overturning of his conviction on April 11, 1996. (People v. Burrows, 665 N.E.2d 1319 (Ill. 1996)).
Read “Back to Family from Life on Death Row” by Dirk Johnson in The New York Times
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction

Verneal Jimerson Illinois Conviction: 1985, Charges Dismissed: 1996 Jimerson was sentenced to death in 1985 for a murder which occurred in 1978. The chief witness against him was Paula Gray, who has an IQ of 57. In her original story to the police, she did not mention Jimerson. Then she added his name to her account, along with three other names, including Dennis Williams (see #67). She later recanted her entire testimony, saying the police had forced her to lie. The original charges against Jimerson were dismissed, but they were resurrected seven years later when the police offered to drop some charges against Gray if she would implicate Jimerson. Gray’s 50 year sentence was converted to 2 years probation. In 1995, the Illinois Supreme Court unanimously reversed Jimerson’s conviction, because Gray had been allowed to testify falsely about her bargain. (People v. Jimerson, 652 N.E.2d 278 (Ill. 1995)). Jimerson was released on bond in early 1996, and charges against him were subsequently dropped. (New York Times, 7/3/96)
Read “DNA Tests and a Confession Set Three on the Path to Freedom in 1978 Murders” by Don Terry in The New York Times
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction

Dennis Williams Illinois Conviction: 1979, Charges Dismissed: 1996 Williams was convicted, along with three others (including Verneal Jimerson, above), for the murder of a young couple in 1978. After spending 18 years in prison, Williams was released on June 14, 1996 because new evidence pointed to the fact that all four men were wrongly convicted. Much of the investigative work which led to the defendants’ release was done by three journalism students. Recent DNA tests indicate that none of the four men were involved in the crime, and another man has confessed to the murder. Charges against Williams, and two others who received lesser sentences in the same case, were dropped on July 2, 1996. Cook County State’s Attorney Jack O’Malley apologized to the four wrongly convicted defendants, including Verneal Jimerson, who had also been on death row. (David Protess and Rob Warden, A Promise of Justice (Hyperion 1998) and New York Times, 7/3/96).
Read “DNA Tests and a Confession Set Three on the Path to Freedom in 1978 Murders” by Don Terry in The New York Times

Roberto Miranda Nevada Conviction: 1982, Charges Dismissed: 1996 Miranda was released in September 1996 after the prosecution declined to retry him following the reversal of his conviction. Miranda had maintained his innocence through his 14 years on death row. He originally came to the U.S. from Cuba during the Mariel boatlift. Prosecutors originally offered him a plea bargain whereby he would serve as little as 10 years in prison, but he refused because he was innocent. One day after being released from death row with only the clothes on his back and a few belongings, he was incarcerated by the Immigration Service. He was subsequently released pending a deportation hearing. At trial, Miranda had been represented by an attorney with one year’s experience who had inherited the case when his colleague died. In overturning his conviction, Clark County Senior District Judge Norman Robison wrote: “The lack of pretrial preparation by trial counsel . . . cannot be justified.” (Las Vegas Review-Journal, 9/6/01 and Dallas Morning News 4/23/97)
Read “Free at Last” by People Magazine
Read “Former Inmate’s Lawsuit…” by Jace Radke in The Las Vegas Sun

Gary Gauger Illinois Conviction: 1993, Charges Dismissed: 1996 Gauger was convicted of killing his parents in April, 1993. In September 1994, the trial court judge reduced Gauger’s sentence to life imprisonment. In March, 1996, the U.S. District Court overturned his conviction, ruling that authorities never had probable cause to even arrest Gauger or to subject him to 21 hours of intensive questioning. He was released in October, 1996 by the same judge that had sentenced him to die by lethal injection. The prosecution did not challenge his release. (US News and World Report, 11/9/98).
Read “Free at Last” by People Magazine
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction
Read “A Broken System: Gary Gauger” by The Justice Project
See “Gary Gauger” by Journey of Hope

Troy Lee Jones California Conviction: 1982, Charges Dismissed: 1996 The California Supreme Court ruled in June, 1996 that Jones should have a new trial because he was not adequately defended at his original trial for the murder of Carolyn Grayson in 1981 (In re Troy Lee Jones on Habeas Corpus, 917 P.2d 1175 (1996)). The Court found that the defense attorney failed to conduct an adequate pretrial investigation, speak with possible witnesses, obtain a relevant police report, or seek pretrial investigative funds. Moreover, the attorney elicited damaging testimony against his own client during cross examination of a witness. The prosecution announced that it was dropping all charges against Jones in November, 1996, after he had been on death row for 14 years. (Associated Press, 11/19/96).
Read “California Death Sentence…” by Dan Goodin in The Recorder

Carl Lawson Illinois Conviction: 1990, Acquitted: 1996 Lawson was convicted of killing Terrence Jones in a family dispute. He was tried three times. The first trial resulted in a conviction and death sentence, but that conviction was overturned in part because Lawson’s public defender had been an assistant State’s Attorney when Lawson was arrested. (Illinois v. Lawson, 644 N.E.2d 1172 (1994). The second trial resulted in a hung jury, reportedly 11-1 for acquittal. Nevertheless, the prosecutors tried Lawson again and again sought the death penalty. This last trial produced an acquittal and Lawson was freed on December 12, 1996. On August 1, 2002, Illinois Governor George Ryan issued a pardon to Lawson based on innocence. (St. Louis Dispatch, 4/12/98 and Chicago Tribune, 8/1/02).

David Wayne Grannis Arizona Convicted: 1991, Charges Dismissed: 1996
On November 6, 1996, Pima County, Arizona, Superior Court Judge Bernardo Valesco dismissed the murder charges against David Wayne Grannis, and he was freed. (Arizona Daily Star, Nov. 7, 1996). Grannis was sentenced to death in 1991 for first degree murder, but his conviction was overturned and remanded for a new trial in July 1995 by the Supreme Court of Arizona. (State v. Grannis, 900 P.2d 1 (Az. 1995)). At trial, Grannis testified that he and his co-defendant, Daniel Webster were hitchhiking and were picked up by the victim, Richard Sutcliffe. Sutcliffe offered the men a place to stay. Although the state argued that Grannis and Webster killed Sutcliffe in the course of robbing him or burglarizing his home, Grannis testified that he did not know Sutcliffe was dead until he was arrested. Grannis testified that he was sexually propositioned by Sutcliffe, who became aggressive. Grannis stated that his screams awakened Webster, who killed Sutcliffe after Grannis ran out of the house. At trial, Webster’s friend, Eva Marie Lopez, stated that she “overheard Webster bragging to [her cousin] Baker about committing a murder. In addition, she testified that she heard Webster tell Baker that he (Webster) killed someone and that he liked the feeling it gave him.” (Id. at 4). At trial, the state offered into evidence photos depicting homosexual activity that were found in Grannis’ room at the time of his arrest. In overturning the conviction, the Arizona Supreme Court held that the photos were “marginally relevant” and that the trial court abused its discretion in admitting them. The Court stated that the probative value of the photos was substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice. “The jurors’ verdict may well have been improperly influenced by their revulsion and not entirely based on a belief that the state proved the elements of the crime.” (Id. at 6). Although Webster was again convicted for Sutcliffe’s murder, the charges against Grannis were dismissed at retrial because of insufficient evidence.


 Ricardo Aldape Guerra Texas Conviction: 1982, Charges Dismissed: 1997 Guerra was sentenced to death for the murder of a police officer in Houston. Federal District Judge Kenneth Hoyt ruled on Nov. 15, 1994 that Guerra should either be retried in 30 days or released, stating that the actions of the police and prosecutors in this case were “outrageous,” “intentional” and “done in bad faith.” He further said that their misconduct “was designed and calculated to obtain . . . another ‘notch in their guns.'” (Guerra v. Collins, 916 F. Supp. 620 (S.D. Texas, 1995)). Judge Hoyt’s ruling was unanimously upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals. (Guerra v. Johnson, 90 F.3d 1075 (5th Cir. Tex. 1996)). Although Guerra was granted a new trial, Houston District Attorney Johnny Holmes dropped charges on April 16, 1997 instead. Guerra returned to his native Mexico. (New York Times, 4/17/97).
Read “Mexican Long Held…” in The New York Times

Benjamin Harris Washington Conviction: 1985, Charges Dismissed: 1997
On March 2, 1994, U.S. District Judge Robert Bryan overturned Harris’ conviction and vacated his sentence of death for the 1984 murder of Jimmy Turner on the basis that his original trial lawyer had been incompetent. Harris’s attorney interviewed only 3 of the 32 witnesses listed in police reports and spent less than 2 hours consulting with Harris before trial. Harris’s co-defendant was acquitted. Bryan ordered Harris released from custody if not brought to a speedy retrial. (Harris by & Through Ramseyer v. Blodgett, 853 F. Supp. 1239 (W.D. Wash. 1994)). The decision was upheld by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals on September 12, 1995. (Harris by & Through Ramseyer v. Wood, 64 F.3d 1432 (9th Cir. Wash. 1995)). The prosecution decided not to retry Harris but tried to have him confined as insane. (They had previously argued that he was competent to stand trial.) On July 16, 1997, a jury decided that Harris should not be imprisoned at Western State Hospital. Harris maintains his innocence and says he was framed. (The Seattle Times, 8/19/97).


Read “Exonerated but Never Set Free” by Maureen O’Hagan in The Seattle Times

 Robert Hayes Florida Conviction: 1991, Acquitted: 1997 Hayes was convicted of the rape and murder of a co-worker based partly on faulty DNA evidence. The Florida Supreme Court threw out Hayes’s conviction and the DNA evidence in 1995 (Hayes v. Florida, 660 So. 2d 257 (1995)). The victim had been found clutching hairs probably from her assailant. The hairs were from a white man, whereas Hayes is black. Hayes was acquitted at a retrial in July, 1997. (Ft. Lauderdale Sun Sentinel, 7/17/97).
Read “The Other 13 Survivors…” by Sydney Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times

Christopher McCrimmon Arizona Conviction: 1993, Acquitted: 1997Christopher McCrimmon was convicted and sentenced to death for a triple murder that occurred in Tucson’s El Grande Market in 1992. Two other co-defendants, Andre Minnitt and Martin Soto-Fong, were also sentenced to death for the same crime. At McCrimmon’s trial, one juror hesitated about his vote for conviction. The trial judge met with the jury, which then shortly returned a unanimous guilty verdict. The Arizona Supreme Court overturned McCrimmon’s conviction in 1996 because of the judge’s undue pressure on the jury. (Arizona v. McCrimmon/Minnitt, 927 P.2d 1298 (1996)). Subsequently, it was discovered that the lead prosecutor against all 3 co-defendants, Kenneth Peasley, presented false evidence in the original case. With this knowledge, McCrimmon was quickly acquitted at his re-trial in 1997. (See Arizona v. Minnitt, 55 P.3d 774, 779 (2002) (vacating co-defendant Minnitt’s conviction and sentence and barring re-trial because of deliberate prosecutorial misconduct)). In commenting on the prosecutor’s deceit, the Arizona Supreme Court wrote: “The record is replete with evidence of Peasley’s full awareness that [evidence he presented] was utterly false. Peasley’s misdeeds were not isolated events but became a consistent pattern of prosecutorial misconduct that began in 1993 and continued through re-trial in 1997.” (See J. Toobin, “Killer Instincts,” The New Yorker, Jan. 17, 2005). In 2004, the Court unanimously voted to disbar Peasley, stating that his behavior “could not have been more harmful to the justice system.” (Ibid.). Peasley had twice been selected as the state prosecutor of the year.

Both McCrimmon and Minnitt remained incarcerated on other unrelated charges. Soto-Fong, whose conviction has not been overturned, was removed from death row because he was a juvenile at the time of the crime. (See also, J. Barrios, “Case Discarded: Tucson Convict Off Death Row,” Arizona Daily Star, Oct. 12, 2002).

 Randall Padgett Alabama Conviction: 1992, Acquitted: 1997 Padgett was convicted of murdering his estranged wife in 1990 and was sentenced to death. The conviction was overturned by the Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals in 1995 (Padgett v. Alabama, 668 So. 2d 78 (1995)). In October, 1997, Padgett was acquitted of all charges at a retrial. There was some evidence presented that another woman had committed the crime. Padgett’s brothers, children and other relatives burst into tears when the foreman read the not guilty verdict. (The Gadsden Times, 10/3/97).


Robert Lee Miller, Jr. Oklahoma Conviction: 1988, Charges Dismissed: 1998*

Robert Lee Miller was convicted of the rape and murder of two elderly women in 1988 and subsequently sentenced to death. In 1995, Oklahoma County prosecutors agreed to a new trial for Miller after DNA testing proved it was not Miller’s semen found on bedclothes at both crime scenes. During the original trials, prosecutors argued that this semen was Miller’s because it matched his blood type. Despite the DNA results, prosecutors still claimed Miller was involved in the crimes.

In February 1997, Oklahoma County Special Judge Larry Jones dismissed the charges against Miller, saying that there was not enough evidence to justify his continued imprisonment. One month later, Oklahoma County District Judge Karl Gray reinstated the charges in response to an appeal by the District Attorney’s office; however, the prosecution ultimately decided to drop all charges and Miller was released.

Read “When the Evidence Lies” by Belinda Luscombe in Time Magazine

Curtis Kyles Louisiana Conviction: 1984, Charges Dismissed: 1998 Kyles was first tried in November 1984, but the ended with a hung jury and a mistrial. In his second trial, in December 1984, Kyles was convicted and sentenced to death. On April 19, 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed Kyles’ conviction citing prosecutorial misconduct in suppressing exculpatory evidence: The state had withheld considerable information about a paid informant who may have been the actual murderer. (Kyles v. Whitley, 514 U.S. 419 (1995)). Kyles’s successful appeal was in the form of a federal habeas corpus petition, since he had lost all of his appeals in state court. Kyles’s third trial ended in October 1996 when the jury deadlocked. In two additional trials, one in September 1997 and another in February 1998, each ended with a jury deadlock. After the fifth mistrial, prosecutors decided to drop charges and Kyles was released. (The Times-Picayune, 2/18/98).


Shareef Cousin Louisiana Conviction: 1996, Charges Dismissed: 1999
UPDATE: Shareef Cousin was released on parole and currently works at the Southern Center for Human Rights (September 18, 2007).

The Louisiana Supreme Court overturned his conviction because of improperly withheld evidence (Louisiana v. Cousin, 710 So. 2d 1065 (1998)). District Attorney Harry Cornick Sr. decided on January 8, 1999 not to pursue the case further. Cornick Sr. said prosecutors did not have enough evidence to pursue the case. (Associated Press, January 8, 1999). Cousin had maintained that he was at a city recreation department basketball game at the time of the crime and his coach testified that he dropped him off at home just 20 minutes after the slaying. (New York Times, January 10, 1999). He remains incarcerated on unrelated charges.

Anthony Porter Illinois Conviction: 1983, Charges Dismissed: 1999 Porter was released in February, 1999 on the motion of the State’s Attorney after another man confessed on videotape to the double 1982 murder that sent Porter to death row. Charges were filed against the other man, who claimed he killed in self-defense. The case was broken by investigator Paul Ciolino working with Prof. David Protess and journalism students from Northwestern University. Their investigation also found that another witness had been pressured by police to testify against Porter. Porter came within 2 days of execution in 1998 and was only spared because the Court wanted to look into his mental competency. Porter has an IQ of 51. His conviction was officially reversed on March 11, 1999. (New York Times, 2/6/99 and 3/12/99).
UPDATE: The man who confessed to the murders, Alstory Simon, eventually pled guilty and was serving a 37-year sentence. However, in 2014 Illinois moved to dismiss charges against him, and he was ordered to be released. (Chicago Sun-Times, Oct. 30, 2014).

The Illinois Supreme Court overturned Smith’s conviction in 1999 because of this unreliable evidence. As a result, Smith was immediately released and is not subject to re-trial. Justice James Heiple, writing for the court said, “When the state cannot meet its burden of proof, the defendant must go free.” (Illinois v. Smith, 708 N.E.2d 365 (1999)). On August 1, 2002, Illinois Governor George Ryan issued a pardon to Smith based on innocence. Smith is the 11th death row inmate to be freed in Illinois since the death penalty was reinstated and the 9th since 1994. (Chicago Sun-Times, February 20, 1999 and August 2, 2002).
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction

 Ronald Keith Williamson Oklahoma Conviction: 1988, Charges Dismissed: 1999 Ronald Williamson and Dennis Fritz were charged with the murder and rape of Deborah Sue Carter, which occurred in Ada, Oklahoma in 1982. They were arrested four years after the crime. Both were convicted and Williamson received the death penalty. In 1997, a federal appeals court overturned Williamson’s conviction on the basis of ineffectiveness of counsel (Williamson v. Ward, 110 F.3d 1508 (10th Cir. 1997) aff’g 904 F. Supp. 1529 (E. D. OK 1995)). The Court noted that the lawyer had failed to investigate and present to the jury the fact that another man had confessed to the crime. The lawyer had been paid a total of $3,200 for the defense. Recently, DNA tests from the crime scene did not match either Williamson or Fritz, but did implicate Glen Gore, a former suspect in the case. All charges against the two defendants were dismissed on April 15, 1999 and they were released. Williamson suffers from bipolar depression and has been hospitalized for treatment. (Daily Oklahoman, 3/18/99 and New York Times 4/16/99).
Read “Life After Death Row” by Sara Rimer in The New York Times Magazine
See Frontline: Burden of Innocence by PBS
Watch an interview with Ronald Williamson

Ronald Jones Illinois Conviction: 1989, Charges Dismissed: 1999 Ronald Jones, 49, was freed after more than eight years on Illinois’ death row after prosecutors dropped all charges against him. Jones was charged with the 1985 rape and murder of Debra Smith on Chicago’s South Side (Chicago Tribune, May 18, 1999). Jones, who was convicted partially on the basis of his confe

ssion, testified at trial that the police had beaten the confession out of him. Jones was a homeless man with an IQ around 80 when he was convicted of the rape and murder. Prosecutors at his conviction described him as a “cold brutal rapist” who “should never see the light of day.” (NY Times, May 19, 1999).

Recent DNA testing revealed that Jones was not the rapist and there was no evidence of any accomplice to the murder. The Cook County state’s attorney filed a motion asking the Illinois Supreme Court to vacate Jones’s conviction in 1997. In May 1999, the state dropped all charges against Jones. He is being temporarily detained pending another matter in a different state (Associated Press, May 18, 1999).

Clarence Richard Dexter Missouri Conviction: 1991, Charges Dismissed: 1999 Dexter was accused in 1990 of murdering his wife of 22 years. Police overlooked significant evidence that the murder occurred in the course of a botched robbery and quickly decided that Dexter must have committed the crime. Dexter’s trial lawyer was in poor health and under federal investigation for tax fraud and failed to challenge blood evidence presented at trial. The conviction was overturned in 1997 because of prosecutorial misconduct. (Missouri v. Dexter, 954 S.W.2d 332 (1997)) The defense then had the blood evidence carefully examined and showed that the conclusions presented at trial were completely wrong. The state’s blood expert admitted that his previous findings overstated the case against Dexter. On the eve of Dexter’s retrial in June, 1999, the prosecution dismissed the charges and Dexter was freed. (Missouri State Public Defender System Memo, 6/7/99 and Kansas City Star, 6/9/99)

Warren Douglas Manning South Carolina Conviction: 1989, Acquitted: 1999
Manning was convicted in 1989 for the slaying of a South Carolina police officer in 1988. The conviction was overturned in 1991 (State v. Manning, 409 S.E.2d 372 (SC 1991)). Manning was retried in 1993, but the case ended in a mistrial. Manning’s third trial in 1995 resulted in another conviction, but it was overturned on December 29, 1997, when the South Carolina Supreme Court held that the trial court abused its discretion by granting the State’s motion to change venue for the selection of the jury. The Court ordered a new trial. (State v. Manning, 495 S.E.2d 191 (SC 1997)). The subsequent trial was declared a mistrial, and prosecutors pursued the case a fifth time. In 1999, at his last trial, Manning was represented by expert death penalty attorney, David Bruck. Manning maintained that although he had been arrested by the officer for driving under license suspension, Manning escaped when the officer stopped another car. The state’s case was entirely circumstantial, and the jury acquitted Manning after less than 3 hours of deliberation. (Morning News (South Carolina), 10/1/00).

Alfred Rivera North Carolina Conviction: 1997, Charges Dismissed 1999
Alfred Rivera, 28, was sentenced to death in the shooting deaths of Michael A. Nicholson and James E. Smith. Nicholson and Smith were shot in the head at close range inside Nicholson’s apartment in 1996. After two years on death row, the North Carolina Supreme Court ordered a new trial for Rivera ruling that the trial judge should have allowed jurors to hear testimony that Rivera may have been framed. (North Carolina v. Rivera, 514 S.E.2d 720 (1999)).

Rivera’s defense was bolstered when a witness came forward to testify that he had heard Antonio T. Bryant claim that he planned to blame the shootings on Rivera. Bryant was one of three men with Rivera at Nicholson’s apartment, according to some testimony. Conflicting eyewitness testimony as to whether Rivera was actually at the scene of the crime, or whether he was visiting his girlfriend, was sufficient to cast doubts in the minds of the jurors, who acquitted Rivera of two counts of first-degree murder. (Winston-Salem Journal, November 23, 1999).

Following the verdict, three jurors identified that they voted for acquittal because the prosecution was unable to prove that Rivera was at the scene of the shootings. Leaving the courthouse, Rivera hugged his three-year-old son, stating that he was “elated” and “felt vindicated.” (Winston-Salem Journal, November 23, 1999).


Steve Manning Illinois Conviction: 1993, Charges Dismissed: 2000 Steve Manning became the 13th inmate exonerated in Illinois, when prosecutors announced that they are dropping charges and no longer plan to retry Manning for the 1990 slaying of trucking company owner Jimmy Pellegrino. Manning was convicted and sentenced to death on the word of informant Tommy Dye, who testified that Manning twice confessed to him when they shared a jail cell. However, secret tape recordings of the two men’s conversations, made at the request of the FBI, revealed no such confession, and Manning vehemently denied confessing. In exchange for his testimony, Dye received an 8-year reduction on his prison sentence on theft and firearms charges. Manning remains in prison on unrelated charges. (Illinois v. Manning (695 N.E.2d 423 (1998) and Chicago Tribune, 1/19/00).
UPDATE: Despite being exonerated in Illinois, Manning was being held in Missouri on a kidnapping conviction. On February 26, 2004, Manning was also cleared of those charges and walked out of prison a free man. New investigations revealed that the informant who testified against Manning had received special treatment while in prison. A federal appeals court had ordered a new trial on the kidnapping charges in November of 2002, but prosecutors decided instead to drop all charges. Manning was the 13th person exonerated in Illinois and this led Governor George Ryan to declare a moratorium on executions as exonerations exceeded excutions. (Chicago Tribune, February 27, 2004)
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction

Eric Clemmons Missouri Conviction: 1987, Acquitted: 2000 In 1983, Eric Clemmons started a 50-year prison sentence for killing a man in St. Louis during a fight. In 1987, he was accused of stabbing Henry Johnson, a fellow inmate, to death. At trial, one guard testified that he had seen Clemmons stab Henry Johnson. Three other inmates testified that Fred Bagby was the man who had stabbed Johnson. However, the prosecutor claimed that the inmates blamed Bagby because he was conveniently killed before the trial began. A jury convicted Clemmons of the murder and a Judge sentenced him to die.

After losing all his appeals in state court and his initial appeal in federal court, Clemmons received papers from another inmate, including a memo written from Captain A.M. Cross, who had testified against Johnson at trial. The memo stated that an inmate had told Gross immediately after the attack that Bagby killed Johnson. Armed with new evidence, and a new attorney, Clemmons filed a federal appeal with the same federal court that had previously rejected his appeal. The three-judge panel reversed their opinion and ordered a new trial. (Clemmons v. Delo, 124 F.3d 944 (8th Cir. 1997)).

At trial, Clemmons presented a letter from Johnson to a prison official in which Johnson described an altercation with Fred Bagby. Furthermore, an expert testified that the blood found on Clemmons’ sweatshirt and hat was not splatter from a stab wound, but was instead consistent with a bloody man running into him. When all the new evidence was presented at re-trial, a circuit court jury acquitted Clemmons in 3 hours on February 18, 2000. Clemmons remains incarcerated on other charges, which he is also challenging. (Kansas City Star, February 27, 2000).

Joseph Nahume Green Florida Conviction: 1993, Charges Dismissed: 2000 Joseph Nahume Green was convicted of the 1992 killing of the society page editor of the weekly Bradford County Telegraph, Judith Miscally, and was subsequently sentenced to death. Prosecutors dismissed charges on March 16, 2000 of the murder. (St. Petersburg Times March 17, 2000).

Green, who has always maintained his innocence, was convicted largely upon the testimony of the state’s only eyewitness, Lonnie Thompson. In appeals process, the Florida Supreme Court questioned Thompson’s fitness in ordering a new trial Green, citing that Thompson’s testimony was “often inconsistent and contradictory.” (Nahume Green v. Florida, 688 So. 2d 301 (1996)). Considering the importance of Thompson’s testimony to the prosecution’s case, the Florida Supreme Court overturned the conviction and ordered a new trial in Alachua County.

During the re-trial, Green’s attorneys challenged Thompson’s competency. The court found that Thompson was mildly retarded and had suffered head traumas that caused memory problems. Based on these facts, the trial judge found Thompson incompetent to testify, and the 1st District Court of Appeal affirmed the decision.  This dismissal of testimony, coupled with the fact that the prosecution could not present any physical evidence linking Green to the crime, led Circuit Judge Robert P. Cates, who had originally sentenced Green to die, to dismiss all charges, saying that there was no evidence tying Green to the murder (St. Petersburg Times, November 28, 2001).
Read “Ex-Death Row Inmate…” by Sydney P. Freedberg in The St. Petersburg Times
Earl Washington Virginia Conviction: 1984, Commuted to life: 1994, Absolute Pardon: 2000 Earl Washington suffers from mental retardation. After he was arrested on another charge in 1983, police convinced him to make a statement concerning the rape and murder of a woman in Culpeper in 1982. He later recanted that statement. Subsequent DNA tests confirmed that Washington did not rape the victim, who had lived long enough to state that there was only one perpetrator of the crime. The DNA results combined with the victim’s statement all but exonerated Washington. Shortly before leaving office in 1994, Governor Wilder commuted Washington’s sentence to life with the possibility of parole. In 2000, additional DNA tests were ordered and the results again excluded Washington as the rapist. In October 2000, Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore granted Earl Washington an absolute pardon. (Statement of Governor Jim Gilmore Regarding the Pardon of Earl Washington, 10/2/00; New York Times, 10/3/00; and Washington Post, 9/24/00, 10/4/00, and 2/15/01).
Read “Life After Death Row” by Sara Rimer in The New York Times Magazine
Read “A Broken System: Earl Washington, Jr.” by The Justice Project

William Nieves Pennsylvania Conviction: 1994, Acquitted: 2000 On October 20, 2000, William Nieves was freed from death row when a Philadelphia jury acquitted him of the 1992 murder of Eric McAiley. Nieves was convicted of the murder in 1994, but maintained his innocence. In 1997, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court held that Nieves was inadequately represented at his first trial and granted him a new trial (Pennsylvania v. Nieves, 746 A.2d 1102 (2000)). “William Nieves’ first trial was not presented in the way it should have been presented, and that’s wrong when someone is being sentenced to death,” said Nieves’ new attorney, former prosecutor John McMahon, Jr. At the re-trial, McMahon pointed out inconsistencies in the key witness’s identification of the killer (Associated Press, 10/21/00) .Update: Nieves died on Oct. 8, 2005 from liver problems that he claimed were not properly treated while he was in prison. (Associated Press, Oct. 13, 2005).

 Frank Lee Smith Florida Conviction: 1985, Charges Dismissed: 2000 Frank Lee Smith, who had been convicted of a 1985 rape and murder of an 8-year-old girl, and who died of cancer in January 2000 while still on death row, was cleared of these charges by DNA testing, according to an aide to Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. After the trial, the chief eyewitness recanted her testimony. Nevertheless, Smith was scheduled for execution in 1990, but received a stay. Prosecutor Carolyn McCann was told by the FBI lab which conducted the DNA tests that: “He has been excluded. He didn’t do it.” Another man, who is currently in a psychiatric facility, is now the main suspect. (Washington Post, 12/15/00 (AP) and St. Petersburg Times (Florida) 12/15/00).
Read “Requiem for Frank Lee Smith” by Frontline

Albert Burrell Louisiana Conviction: 1987, Charges Dismissed: 2000

After spending 13 years on death row, Michael Graham was released from the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola on December 28, 2000 after the Louisiana Attorney General dismissed charges against him and his co-defendant Albert Burrell. Burrell was released on January 3, 2001. Graham and Burrell were sentenced to death in 1987 for the murder of an elderly couple. Earlier this year, a judge threw out their convictions because of a lack of physical evidence and suspect witness testimony used at trial. Prosecutor Dan Grady acknowledged that the case was weak and “should never have been brought to [the] grand jury.” During the trial, prosecutors withheld key information from the defense, failed to produce any physical evidence, and relied only on witness testimony, which has since been discredited. Dismissing the charges, the Attorney General’s office cited a “total lack of credible evidence” and stated “prosecutors would deem it a breach of ethics to proceed to trial.” Recent DNA tests proved that blood found at the victims’ home did not belong to Burrell or Graham. The trial attorneys appointed to defend Burrell were later disbarred for other reasons. (Associated Press 12/28/00 and The Advocate Online, 3/19/01).
Read “A Broken System: Michael Graham” by The Justice Project

 Oscar Lee Morris California Conviction: 1983, Charges Dismissed: 2000 Morris was convicted in 1983 and sentenced to death. His death sentence was vacated by the California Supreme Court in 1988. Although the court did not overturn his conviction, it later ordered an evidentiary hearing when the state’s chief witness against Morris issued a deathbed recantation. After the evidentiary hearing, the Los Angeles County Superior Court granted Morris a new trial. Prosecutors decided not to retry the case and Morris was freed in 2000. (L.A. Daily Journal, October 29, 2002). At his initial trial, Morris was represented by Ronald Slick, who was criticized in 2001 for giving prosecutors confidential documents to help them keep a former client on death row. (Id.). Morris’s chief accuser was Joe West. West implicated Morris after being arrested while on parole. “Joe West testified on direct examination by the prosecutor that his motive for cooperating with the prosecution was a quarrel with defendant which resulted in his attempt on defendant’s life…” (People v. Morris, 756 P.2d 843, 857 (CA 1988)). According to the California Supreme Court, “no motive or explanation for the murder was disclosed at trial other than the statement attributed to defendant by Joe West” that Morris wanted to kill someone. (Id. at 854). The prosecutor in the case, Arthur Jean, Jr., now a L.A. Country Superior Court Judge, withheld from the defense that West was given special treatment in light of his testimony. The California Supreme Court noted that Jean had written two pretrial letters on West’s behalf, asking a fellow prosecutor and the parole board to grant West leniency for other crimes to reward his testimony against Morris. The California Supreme Court held that the prosecutor’s failure to disclose these actions violated Morris’s due process rights. The court added, “The nondisclosure was compounded, moreover, by the district attorney’s affirmative representation to the jury that West had not received any benefits in return for his testimony.Ó (Id. at 863). Jean told jurors in the case that “[There] is no evidence, not a shred, and you would have it if it existed, if Mr. West got any benefit from this, that is, in the handling of his criminal case.” (Id.). West later confessed that he fabricated the entire case against Morris. “The testimony I gave against Oscar Morris…in 1978 was a lie,” said West in a 1997 sworn declaration a few weeks before his death. (L.A. Daily Journal, October 29, 2002). (Note: Morris was originally charged with robbery and murder. The robbery charge was reversed by the California Supreme Court in its 1988 ruling when the court overturned his sentence.)


Peter Limone Massachusetts Conviction: 1968, Charges Dismissed: 2001 Thirty -three years after being convicted and sentenced to death for a 1965 murder, Peter Limone’s conviction has been overturned (Commonwealth v. Limone, 2001 Mass. Super. LEXIS 7 (2001)) and the case against him officially dropped. The move came as a result of a Justice Department task force’s discovery of compelling new evidence that Limone and his co-defendants Joseph Salvati, Henry Tamelo, and Louis Greco were actually innocent of the murder of Edward Deegan. In 1968, all four were convicted and Limone was sentenced to die in Massachusetts’ electric chair, but was spared in 1974 when Massachusetts abolished the death penalty and his sentence was commuted to life in prison. Salvati, who was released from prison in 1997 when the governor commuted his sentence, received word from prosecutors that they were dropping the case against him as well. Tamelo and Greco both died in prison. At trial, the main witness against the four men was Joseph Barboza, a hit man cooperating with prosecutors, who later admitted that he had fabricated much of his testimony. The recently revealed FBI documents show that informants had told the FBI before the murder that Deegan would soon be killed and by whom, and a memorandum after the crime listed the men involved. Neither list included Limone, Salvati, Tamelo or Greco. (New York Times, 2/2/01 and Boston Herald, 1/21/01)
Read “Free at Last” by People Magazine

Gary Drinkard
Alabama Conviction: 1995, Charges Dismissed: 2001 Drinkard was sentenced to death in 1995, but his conviction was overturned by the Alabama Supreme Court in 2000 (Ex parte Gary Drinkard, 777 So. 2d 295 (2000)). A team of lawyers and investigators from Alabama and the Southern Center for Human Rights in Atlanta spent hundreds of hours preparing for the case and were able to prove that Drinkard was at home at the time the crime was committed. (Decatur Daily, 5/27/01 and Washington Post, 5/28/01). 

 Joaquin Martinez Florida Conviction: 1997, Acquitted: 2001 Former death row inmate Joaquin Martinez was acquitted of all charges at his retrial for a 1995 murder in Florida. Martinez’s earlier conviction was overturned by the Florida Supreme Court because of improper statements by a police detective at trial. (Martinez v. Florida, 761 So. 2d 1074 (2000)). The prosecution did not seek the death penalty in Martinez’s second trial after key prosecution witnesses changed their stories and recanted their testimony. An audio tape of alleged incriminating statements by Martinez, which was used at the first trial, was ruled inadmissible at retrial because it was inaudible. The new jury, however, heard evidence that the transcript of the inaudible tape had been prepared by the victim’s father, who was the manager of the sheriff’s office evidence room at the time of the murder and who had offered a $10,000 reward in the case. (The Tampa Bay Tribune, 6/7/01). Both the Pope and the King of Spain had tried to intervene on behalf of Martinez, who is a Spanish national. Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar welcomed the verdict, saying: “I’m very happy that this Spaniard was declared not guilty. I’ve always been against the death penalty and I always will be.” (Tampa Bay Tribune (AP) 6/6/01).

Jeremy Sheets Nebraska Conviction: 1997, Charges Dismissed: 2001 Jeremy Sheets was released after the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal of a Nebraska Supreme Court decision overturning his conviction. Prosecutors then dropped the charges against him. (Associated Press, 6/14/01). In September, 2000, the Nebraska high court unanimously ruled that a tape recording made by an alleged accomplice who committed suicide prior to the trial was the kind of statement deemed “highly suspect,” “inherently unreliable,” and hence inadmissible without the opportunity for Sheets to cross-examine. (Nebraska v Sheets, 618 N.W.2d 117 (2000)). The statements (later recanted) were made by Adam Barnett, who was arrested for the 1992 rape and murder of the same victim as in Sheets’ case. Barnett confessed to the crime and implicated Sheets. In exchange for the taped statement, Barnett received a plea bargain in which he avoided a charge of first degree murder, did not have an additional weapons charge filed, and received a commitment for his safety while incarcerated. Barnett’s statement was the key evidence used against Sheets at trial. (State v. Sheets, 618 N.W.2d 117 (Neb. 2000) and Associated Press, 6/12/01). See also Jeremy Sheets’ website.

 Charles Irvin Fain Idaho Conviction: 1983, Charges Dismissed: 2001 Charles Irvin Fain, a Vietnam veteran who spent over 18 years on Idaho’s death row, was freed with all charges dismissed in 2001. Although Fain always maintained his innocence, he was convicted and sentenced to death for the February 1982 kidnapping, sexual assault and drowning of 9-year-old Daralyn Johnson. Fain, who was unemployed and living with his parents in Redmond, Oregon at the time of the crime, had lived in Idaho until June 1981. He returned to Idaho in March of 1982 to look for work. Fain moved in with a neighbor of the Johnson family, and in September of 1982, police asked that he provide hair samples. Fain agreed, and those samples were the key evidence against him in his trial. Testifying on behalf of Fain were witnesses who placed Fain in Oregon in February of 1982. However, the jury found Fain guilty, primarily on the forensic testimony of an FBI specialist about the hairs, and the testimony of two jailhouse informants who claimed that Fain made “incriminating statements” about the case. With the help of new attorneys, Fain was able to get the physical evidence tested under a new DNA testing process known as Mitochondrial DNA Testing. Results of those tests not only excluded Fain, but pointed to two other suspects. The US District Court judge who originally would not consider Fain’s innocence claims vacated the conviction on July 6, 2001 and ordered prosecutors to either retry or release Fain. Canyon County District Attorney David Young announced that the state would not retry Fain, who was released from the maximum-security facility in Boise, Idaho on August 23, 2001. (Los Angeles Times, August 19 and 24, 2001) Young stated that “justice requires the action we have taken today,” indicating that the investigation for the killer would be re-opened. (New York Times, August 24, 2001)


Juan Roberto Melendez Florida Conviction: 1984, Charges Dismissed: 2002 In 1984, a jury convicted Juan Melendez, then 33, of killing Delbart Baker and leaving him on the floor of his beauty school in Auburndale, FL. A convicted felon testified that Melendez admitted to the crime, and another witness with a grudge against Melendez put him at the scene. No physical evidence was found connecting Melendez, a migrant fruit picker with a 9th-grade education, to the crime. Nevertheless, a jury sentenced Melendez to die, and in 1986, the Florida Supreme Court upheld the conviction and death sentence. In a little noticed opinion, however, Justice Rosemary Barkett, the dissenting voice on the Florida Supreme Court raised doubts about the evidence, “there are cases […] when a review of the evidence leaves one with the fear that an execution would perhaps be terminating the life of an innocent person” (St. Petersburg Times, January 4, 2002).  Melendez lost another round of appeals in the mid 1990s.

Melendez spent nearly 18 years on Florida’s death row before Linda McDermott, a young death penalty attorney with the Capital Collateral Regional Counsel, took an interest in his case. In December 2001, Florida Circuit Court Judge Barbara Fleischer overturned Melendez’s capital murder conviction after determining that prosecutors in his original trial withheld critical evidence, thereby undermining confidence in the original verdict (St. Petersburg Times, January 4, 2002). The judge noted that no physical evidence linked Melendez to the crime. The state had used the testimony of two witnesses whose credibility was later challenged with new evidence. (Associated Press, 12/5/01) Following the reversal of the conviction, prosecutors announced the state’s decision to abandon charges against Melendez (Associated Press, 1/3/02).
See “Juan Melendez” by Journey of Hope

Ray Krone Arizona Conviction: 1992, Charges Dismissed: 2002 On April 8, 2002, Ray Krone was released from prison in Arizona after DNA testing showed that he did not commit the murder for which he was convicted 10 years earlier. Maricopa County Attorney Rick Romley and Phoenix Police Chief Harold Hurtt announced at a news conference on April 8, 2002 that new DNA tests vindicated Krone and that they would seek his release pending a hearing next month to vacate the murder conviction. Romley stated, “[Krone] deserves an apology from us, that’s for sure. A mistake was made here. . . . What do you say to him? An injustice was done and we will try to do better. And we’re sorry.” Krone was first convicted in 1992, based largely on circumstantial evidence and testimony that bite marks on the victim matched Krone’s teeth. He was sentenced to death. Three years later he received a new trial (State v. Krone, 897 P.2d 621 (Ariz. 1995) (en banc)), but was again found guilty and sentenced to life in prison in 1996. Krone’s post-conviction defense attorney, Alan Simpson, obtained a court order for DNA tests. The results not only exculpated Krone, but they pointed to another man, Kenneth Phillips, as the assailant. Prosecutor William Culbertson told Maricopa County Superior Court Judge Alfred Fenzel that the chances are 1.3 quadrillion to one that DNA found in saliva on the victim’s tank top came from Phillips. (The Arizona Republic, 4/9/02).
Read DPIC’s Press Release.
Read “Free at Last” by People Magazine
See “Ray Krone” by Journey of Hope

Thomas H. Kimbell, Jr. Pennsylvania Conviction: 1998, Acquitted: 2002 Thomas H. Kimbell was sentenced to death in 1998 following his conviction for the murder of Bonnie Dryfuse, her two daughters, and her niece. All four were stabbed multiple times and had their throats slashed in the Dryfuse family’s rural trailer home. Kimbell, a one-time crack addict, was convicted or the murders despite the fact that the police found no eyewitnesses or physical evidence linking him to the crime.

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court overturned his conviction in 2000 citing the unfair exclusion of evidence that would have shed light on Kimbell’s innocence (State v. Kimbell, 759 A.2d 1273 (Pa. 2000)). The excluded evidence would have placed the husband of one of the victims at home, the scene of the crime, shortly before the murders. Kimbell maintained his innocence throughout his incarceration, despite testimony from witnesses that he had been near the scene of the crime shortly before the murders and despite the testimony of several individuals, including three jailhouse informants, that he had admitted committing the murders. At the retrial, jurors heard both possible versions of the crime. In addition, one of the jailhouse informants had passed away and another recanted his earlier testimony, saying he had been pressured into giving it. After deliberating for more than a day, the jury found Kimbell, 40, not guilty on all charges (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 5/4/02). His attorney was Thomas W. Leslie.

 Larry Osborne Kentucky Conviction: 1999, Charges Dismissed: 2002 Larry Osborne, at one time the youngest man on Kentucky’s death row, was freed after a jury acquitted him in a second trial of murdering an 82-year old man and his 76-year old wife in 1997. The murders occurred when an intruder smashed a window and broke into the victims’ home in southeastern Kentucky, bludgeoning the couple and setting fire to the house. Joe Reid, 15, a friend who testified he had seen Osborne break into the couple’s home and later come out with a pocketful of cash, drowned several months before Osborne’s trial. Reid testified before a grand jury, which subsequently indicted Osborne on charges of murder, robbery, burglary and arson. Osborne’s attorneys objected to having Reid’s testimony used at trial, asserting that his testimony was tantamount to hearsay because the dead teen could not be cross-examined. The trial judge disagreed and Osborne was sentenced to death following his conviction.

The Kentucky Supreme Court disagreed with the trial judge, and in a unanimous opinion, reversed Osborne’s conviction citing the use of inadmissible hearsay testimony (Commonwealth v. Osborne, 43 S.W.2d 234 (Ky. 2001)). The second jury to hear his case acquitted Osborne of all charges, and he was freed immediately. Osborne was only 17 at the time of the crime, and ended up on death row despite the lack of physical evidence (Louisville Courier-Journal, 8/2/02). He is the first Kentucky death row inmate to be found innocent since the state reinstituted capital punishment in 1976 (Las Vegas Sun, 8/02/02).
Read DPIC’s Press Release
Read “Youngest Man on Death Row…” by The Associated Press


leroy orange
Leroy Orange done by Kenneth Reams

101-104 – Illinois Governor Pardons Four Death Row Inmates Based on Innocence
On January 10, 2003, Illinois Governor George Ryan granted four pardons based on innocence. The men pardoned, Aaron Patterson, Madison Hobley, Leroy Orange, and Stanley Howard, were all members of the “Death Row 10,” a group of Illinois death row prisoners who claimed that they were the victims of police torture. The four pardoned men maintained that their confessions were given only after they were beaten, had guns pointed at them, were subjected to electric shock, or were nearly suffocated with typewriter covers placed over their heads. In 2002, a special prosecutor was named to conduct a broad inquiry into the allegations from more than 60 suspects who, like the Death Row 10, claimed that they were tortured by former Chicago Police Commander Jon Burge or his detectives at the Burnside Area Violent Crimes headquarters in Chicago during the 1980s. Jon Burge was fired by the Chicago Police Board in 1993 for his role in the torture of another prisoner. Governor Ryan examined the cases of all the Illinois death row inmates and selected these four for pardons based on their coerced confessions and other information. Governor Ryan commuted the death sentences of 167 other inmates, but did not pardon them. (Chicago Tribune, January 10, 2003). 

 Aaron Patterson Illinois Conviction: 1986, Pardoned: 2003

Aaron Patterson spent 17 years on death row and always maintained his innocence in the stabbing deaths of an elderly couple in 1986. (Chicago Tribune, January 10, 2003). During his pre-trial interrogation, Patterson etched the following words on an interrogation room bench: I lied about murders police threatened me with violence slapped and suffocated me with plastic – no phone – no dad signed false statement to murders (Tonto) Aaron. (State v. Patterson, 735 N.E.2d 616, 627-28 (Ill. 2000)). In addition, photographs of the interrogation room revealed the phrase “Aaron lied” etched in the door of the room. (Id.). There was no physical evidence tying Patterson to the crime, and fingerprints recovered from the scene did not belong to him. In addition, Patterson’s former girlfriend testified that she was with Patterson on the night the of the murders. In 2000, the Illinois Supreme Court granted Patterson an evidentiary hearing to determine whether his attorney was ineffective for failing to present evidence that the confession was coerced. The Court stated: “Evidence identifying defendant as perpetrator consisted of (1) the oft-changing testimony of a teenager [Marva Hall] whose cousin had been a suspect in the crime; and (2) the testimony from the police officers and assistant State’s Attorney concerning defendant’s confession.” (Id. at 633). After Patterson’s conviction, Marva Hall swore in an affidavit that prosecutors pressured her into implicating Patterson. “It was like I was reading a script,” she said of her testimony. Hall told Northwestern University journalism students who were investigating the case: “I helped send [an] innocent man to jail.” (Newsweek, May 31, 1999).

Madison Hobley Illinois Conviction: 1987, Pardoned: 2003 Madison Hobley was convicted of setting fire to an apartment building in 1987 that claimed the lives of seven tenants, including his wife and child. Hobley maintained his innocence, claiming that his confession was the product of police torture. At trial, the evidence against Hobley consisted of the testimony of Andre Council, a suspected arsonist who claimed to have seen Hobley buying gasoline before the fire, and a gas station attendant who could not identify Hobley in a lineup and could only state that Hobley “favored” the man who purchased the gasoline. Hobley’s trial was marred by prosecutiorial and juror misconduct. The Illinois Supreme Court concluded that “despite [Hobley’s] pretrial requests for production, the State failed to disclose to him the evidence of two pieces of exculpatory evidence: (1) a report that defendant’s fingerprints were not on the gasoline can introduced against him at trial, and (2) a second gasoline can found at the fire scene.” (State v. Hobley, 696 N.E.2d 313, 331 (Ill. 1998) (emphasis in original)). Records also showed that police destroyed the second gasoline can after the defense issued a subpoena for it, a move the Illinois Supreme Court said supported a finding that the destruction was “motivated by bad faith.” (Id.). In addition, post-conviction affidavits of jurors stated that some jurors were intimidated by non-jurors while they were sequestered at a hotel, and that they were prejudiced by the acts of the jury foreperson, a police-officer who believed Hobley was guilty. The affidavits also stated that jurors brought newspapers with articles about the case into the jury room and that they repeatedly violated the trial court’s sequestration order. (Id. at 338). The Court remanded the case for an evidentiary hearing on the issue of whether prosecutors violated Hobley’s constitutional rights by withholding evidence, and on the issue of whether the jurors were intimidated during deliberations. (Id. at 345). In remanding the case, the Court stated: “we stress that we are deeply troubled by the nature of the allegations in this case.” (Id. at 338).
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction
Leroy Orange Illinois Conviction: 1984, Pardoned: 2003 Leroy Orange was convicted in 1985 of four counts each of murder and concealment of a homicidal death. He was found guilty and sentenced to death largely on the basis of his confession. Orange later stated that his confession was obtained by police torture and that he was innocent. However, the Illinois Supreme Court stated that there was “no evidence of physical trauma, and no witnesses were available to support the defendant’s allegations of abuse, despite the testimony of a pathologist who asserted that the Orange’s description of his confession was “consistent with someone who had been tortured.” (State v. Orange, 659 N.E.2d 935, 947 (Ill. 1995)).

At Orange’s trial, his half-brother, Leonard Kidd, testified that, although Orange was at the victims’ apartment earlier in the evening, he left before the murders and took no part in the crime. Kidd even testified that he was solely responsible for the murders. Shirely Evans, a friend of Orange, testified that Orange was with her the night of the murders (State v. Orange, 521 N.E.2d 69, 72 (Ill. 1988). Nevertheless, Orange was sentenced to death, a fact that might be largely attributed to ineffective assistance of counsel. At trial, Orange was represented by attorney Earl Washington, who was paid only $400 to represent Orange and who had three Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission (ARDC) charges pending at the time of Orange’s trial (State v. Orange, 659 N.E.2d 935, 947 (Ill. 1995)). The Chicago Tribune singled out Washington for his ineptitude, noting that the state filed new disciplinary charges against him. Those charges alleged that Washington’s representation of Orange and others “amounted to professional misconduct.” (Chicago Tribune, November 15, 1999).

Leroy Orange spent 19 years on death row before he was pardoned by Governor Ryan in 2003.
Stanley Howard Illinois Conviction: 1987, Pardoned: 2003 Stanley Howard was convicted in 1987 of the murder of Oliver Ridgell. (Chicago Tribune, January 10, 2003). Ridgell was shot while sitting in his car with Tecora Mullen. Mullen, who was unharmed, identified Howard as the shooter. Howard was arrested on an unrelated warrant and he seemed to fit the description of the shooter provided by Tecora Mullen.

At trial, one of the main pieces of evidence against Howard was his statement to the police. Howard, however, always maintained that his confession was obtained by police torture. In his statement, Howard said he was having dinner with his girlfriend, then went to the house of a friend, Byron Hopkins, to “pick up a gun” so he could “try to get me some money.” (State v. Howard, 588 N.E.2d 1044 (Ill. 1991)). In his statement, Howard also admitted that he ran to his girlfriend’s house after shooting Ridgell, which was a short distance from the crime scene. The defense team sought to discredit Howard’s confession at trial, pointing out all the contradictions in his statement. Howard’s girlfriend, Terry Jones, testified that she was living in a distant part of the city at the time of the crime, and Byron Hopkins presented a stipulation at trial that he did not own a 9-milimeter gun of the type that was used in the crime. The other evidence used against Howard was the testimony of Mullen, who had identified Howard in a lineup conducted in November 1984. However, Mullen admitted that it was dark and raining outside at the time of the shooting. In addition, Mullen’s husband was originally a suspect in the murder (Id.), an alternative theory of the crime that the defense counsel was not allowed to present to the jury according to the Illinois Supreme Court (Id.).

Howard was pardoned by Governor Ryan, and subsequently removed from death row but remains incarcerated for an unrelated offense. (Chicago Tribune, January 10, 2003).

Rudolph Holton Florida Conviction: 1986, Charges Dismissed: 2003

Florida death row inmate Rudolph Holton was released on January 24, 2003, after prosecutors dropped all charges against him. (Miami Herald, January 25, 2003). Holton’s conviction for a 1986 rape and murder was overturned in 2001 when a Florida Circuit Court held that the state withheld exculpatory evidence from the defense that pointed to another perpetrator. The court also found that new DNA tests contradicted the trial testimony of a state’s witness. At trial, a prosecution witness testified that hairs found in the victim’s mouth linked Holton to the crime. However, recent DNA tests conclusively exclude Holton as the contributor of the hair, and found that the hairs most likely belonged to the victim. (Florida v. Holton, No. 86-08931 (Fla. Cir. Ct. Sept. 2001) (order granting, in part, motion to vacate judgment)). In December 2002, the Florida Supreme Court upheld the lower court’s decision to reverse Holton’s conviction and sentence. (Florida v. Holton, No. SC01-2671, 2002 Fla. LEXIS 2687 slip op. at 1 (Fla. December 18, 2002)). Prosecutors announced in January 2003 that the state was dropping all charges against Holton, who had spent 16 years on death row.

(Miami Herald, January 25, 2003)
Read “Part I: The Innocence Defense” by David Karp in The St. Petersburg Times (January 24, 2003)
Read “Part II: The Innocence Defense” by David Karp in The St. Petersburg Times (January 24, 2003)

Read “Part I: The Innocence Defense” by David Karp in The St. Petersburg Times
Read “Part II: The Innocence Defense” by David Karp in The St. Petersburg Times

Lemuel Prion Arizona Convicted: 1999, Charges Dismissed: 2003 On March 14, 2003, the Pima County (Arizona) Attorney’s Office dismissed all charges against death row inmate Lemuel Prion, who had been convicted of murdering Diana Vicari in 1999. In August 2002, the Arizona Supreme Court unanimously overturned his conviction, stating that the trial court committed reversible error by excluding evidence of another suspect. According to the Supreme Court, “There was no physical evidence identifying Prion as her killer,” and the trial court abused its discretion in not allowing the defense to submit evidence that a third party, John Mazure, was the actual killer. Mazure, who was also a suspect in the murder, was known to have a violent temper, saw Vicari the night of her disappearance, concealed information from the police when they questioned him, and “appeared at work the next morning after Vicari’s disappearance so disheveled and disoriented that he was fired.” The Arizona Supreme Court held that the third-party evidence “supports the notion that Mazure had the opportunity and motive to commit this crime. . . .” (Arizona v. Prion, No. CR-99-0378-AP (2002)). Prion’s conviction was based largely on the testimony of Troy Olson, who identified Prion as the man who was with Vicari on the night of her murder. However, when police first showed Olson photographs of Prion, Olson could not identify Prion. According to the Court, “[Olson] stated that the person in the photograph did not look familiar.” Seventeen months later, after seeing a newspaper picture of Prion labeling him as the prime suspect in the Vicari murder, Olson believed he could identify Prion. The Arizona Supreme Court also held that the trial court committed prejudicial error in failing to sever the Vicari murder trial from Prion’s trial for another crime, stating that “any connection between the two crimes is attenuated at best.” Prosecutors admitted that Prion would most likely have been acquitted if prosecuted under the standards set by the August 2002 ruling. Prion remained incarcerated in Utah for an unrelated crime. (Tucson Citizen, March 15, 2003).

Wesley Quick Alabama Convicted: 1997, Acquitted: 2003 An Alabama jury acquitted death row inmate Wesley Quick of the 1995 double murder for which he was sentenced to death in 1997. The verdict marked the end of the third trial for Quick who was charged with shooting of John Hughes and Nathan King, on October 26, 1995. Quick’s first trial ended in a mistrial in May 1997 due to allegations of juror misconduct. During his second trial, Quick was convicted of the murders and sentenced to death row. On appeal, Quick raised the issue that his defense counsel was improperly denied access to a free transcript of the previous trial due to his indigent status. The Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals overturned that verdict in 2001, stating that the judge in Quick’s second trial was indeed wrong to deny Quick a free copy of the transcript from the previous mistrial in light of his indigent status (Quick v. State, 825 So. 2d 246 (2001)).

Quick was accused of shooting the two men in the presence of a female acquaintance, and then picking up his friend, Jason Beninati. According to Beninati, Quick drove to the scene of the crime and showed him the bodies of his victims. Beninati testified against Quick at the 1997 trial. However, at the most recent trial, Quick testified that it was actually Beninati who was responsible for the murders, and the one who had disposed of the murder weapon. Thomas Mesereau, a member of Quick’s defense team, said Quick should have never been on Death Row and that justice was served with his acquittal because “the truth finally came out.” (Birmingham News, April 22, 2003).

 John Thompson Louisiana Conviction: 1985, Acquitted: 2003

John Thompson was sentenced to death in 1985 following his conviction for a New Orleans murder. Thompson, who has maintained his innocence since his arrest, was released from prison on May 9, 2003, less than 24 hours after a jury acquitted him at his retrial. (Times-Picayune, May 9, 2003). In 1999, just five weeks before his scheduled execution, Thompson’s attorney discovered crucial blood analysis evidence that undermined information used to influence the jury’s decision to send Thompson to death row. The blood evidence, which had been improperly withheld by the State, cleared Thompson of a robbery conviction. It was that conviction that kept Thompson from testifying on his own behalf at the murder trial. In 2001, trial judge Patrick Quinlan vacated Thompson’s capital sentence, stating that the erroneous robbery conviction had likely influenced the jury’s decision to send Thompson to death row. Thompson remained in jail under a sentence of life without parole. (State v. Thompson, 825 So. 2d 552, 557 (La. 2002)). In a later appeal to the 4th Circuit Court of Appeal of Louisiana, the court ruled that Thompson was “denied his right to testify in his own behalf based upon the improper actions of the State in the other case.” (Id.) The court held that it was “the State’s intentional hiding of exculpatory evidence in the armed robbery case that led to [Thompson’s] improper conviction in that case and his subsequent decision not to testify in the instant case because of the improper conviction.” (Id.) The court reversed Thompson’s conviction and sentence, ordering a new trial.The retrial featured never-before heard testimony by Thompson, professing his innocence. In addition, jurors heard testimony from an eye-witness who insisted that it was not John Thompson whom she saw kill the victim. They also heard testimony that another man, Kevin Freeman, was the actual killer. Freeman was originally charged with the murder, but arranged a plea agreement with prosecutors and implicated Thompson. Although Freeman died prior to Thompson’s recent trial, jurors were allowed to hear his earlier statements about the case, which were followed by questions that the defense would have asked on cross-examination. The trial concluded after jurors took less than an hour to acquit Thompson. (Times-Picayune, May 9, 2003). Read DPIC’s Press Release.

 Timothy Howard Ohio Convicted: 1976, Charges Dismissed: 2003

Timothy Howard was released from prison on April 23, 2003 when Franklin County Common Pleas Judge Michael H. Watson overturned his conviction citing evidence not disclosed or available during the 1977 trial. The new evidence was gathered through Freedom of Information requests filed by Howard. Howard was able to uncover new fingerprint evidence and conflicting witness statements made to the FBI that were not made available to defense attorneys during the his trial in 1977. Howard Spent 26 years behind bars, a portion of which time he spent on Ohio’s death row before the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional in the state.

Howard’s attorney James D. Owen said that the long legal fight ended abruptly and with little fanfare when Franklin County Prosecutor Ron O’Brien, “in the interest of justice,” agreed to dismiss all charges against Howard and his codefendant, Gary Lamar James (The Columbus Dispatch, July 18, 2003). Howard was awarded $2.5 million in July of 2006 as compensation for his wrongful conviction, the largest sum ever paid to a wrongly convicted defendant in Ohio.

Gary Lamar James Ohio Convicted: 1976, Charges Dismissed: 2003Timothy Howard and Gary James were arrested in December, 1976 for a Columbus, Ohio bank robbery in which one of the bank guards was murdered. Both men maintained their innocence throughout the trial. In 1978, Ohio’s death penalty was held to be unconstitutional and all death row inmates were re-sentenced. Howard and James were given life sentences. With funding from Centurion Ministries of New Jersey, Howard and James were subsequently able to uncover new evidence not made available to their defense attorneys at the time of their trial, including conflicting witness statements and fingerprints. James agreed to and passed a state-administered polygraph test, prompting Franklin County prosecutor Ron O’Brien to dismiss all charges “in the interest of justice.” Howard was freed earlier on April 23 when Franklin County Common Pleas judge Michael Watson overturned his conviction, citing evidence not disclosed or available at trial. The state dropped its appeal of the judge’s ruling, thereby clearing him of the same charges. While O’Brien said that releasing the two men was an admission of a 26-year-old unsolved murder and robbery, “[w]e don’t want anybody in prison serving time for something they didn’t do.” (Columbus Dispatch, July 16, 18, and 21, 2003) 

Joseph Amrine Missouri Conviction: 1986, Charges Dismissed: 2003Joseph Amrine, 46, was released from jail in June 2003 after the Missouri Supreme Court, in a 4-3 vote, overturned his conviction and death sentence. Amrine was sentenced to death for the murder of a fellow prison inmate, Gary Barber, and spent seventeen years of his life on death Missouri’s death row.

Amrine has maintained his innocence since the alleged incident, and investigators were never able to find any physical evidence linking Amrine to the crime. Amrine was convicted mainly because of the testimony of fellow inmates, three of whom later recanted their testimony, admitting that they lied in exchange for protection. Six other prisoners testified that Amrine had been playing cards elsewhere in the prison when Barber was fatally stabbed. The Missouri Supreme Court originally ordered Amrine released in April of 2003, citing the alarming fact that there was not credible evidence to uphold the conviction or the death sentence (Amrine v. Roper, Mo. Sup. Ct. No. SC84656, April 29, 2003). Amrine’s released was postponed, however, when Prosecutor Bill Tracket filed amended murder charges against Amrine in order to conduct DNA tests on blood stains found on the pants Amrine wore the day of Barber’s death. DNA tests were inconclusive and on July 28, 2003, prosecutor Bill Tackett announced that he would not seek a new trial of Amrine and that he would be released. (Associated Press, July 28, 2003).

Arthur Benson, one of Amrine’s lawyers, said that he is in the intial stages of planning a civil case seeking compensation for the years Amrine spent behind bars for the prison killing. Sean O’Brien, another of Amrine’s attorneys, expressed his relief and disappointment, “It’s been a long time coming and we worked harder than we should have had to exonerate somebody” (The Associated Press, July 28, 2003).
Click Here for DPIC’s Coverage of State of Missouri v. Joseph Amrine
Read DPIC’s Press Release.

Read “A Broken System: Joseph Amrine” by The Justice Project
Read “Facing Execution on Tainted Testimony” by Amnesty International

Nicholas Yarris Pennsylvania Conviction: 1982, Charges Dismissed: 2003 In 1981, Nicholas Yarris was in jail on a minor charge when he learned of the murder of 32-year-old Linda Mae Craig in Delaware County, Pennsylvania. Yarris believed that he would be freed if he could tell investigators he knew the killer’s identity. Yarris gave investigators a wrong name, believing he could blame the murder on a dead associate. Police leaked to other inmates that Yarris was a snitch, and Yarris endured days of regular beatings and torture. In an effort to save himself, Yarris asked what would happen if he had participated in the crime, but was not the murderer. The beatings stopped, and Yarris was charged with capital murder. A fellow inmate made a deal with the DA and began exchanging false information about Yarris in exchange for conjugal visits and reduced sentencing with the DA. This inmate became one of the few witnesses to testify against Yarris at trial. The only physical evidence prosecutors offered was semen that had been tested only for blood type. During the trial in June of 1982, the prosecution refused to hand over some 20 pages of documents which would later be revealed to include other physical evidence and conflicting witness accounts. Yarris was found guilty, and sent to death row. On appeal, a federal judge approved a motion by prosecutors to have evidence from the case tested in a lab in Alabama that was later revealed to have had no experience in DNA testing. This lab found no conclusive results to exclude Yarris or include anyone else. A May 1994 motion for a new trial was denied. The DNA evidence was finally independently tested in 2000 by arrangement with the Pennsylvania Federal Defender Office that now represents Yarris, and the results of 3 tests excluded Yarris based on evidence from the crime scene. A Philadelphia Common Pleas judge vacated his conviction and ordered a new trial (Pennsylvania v. Yarris, No 690-OF1982, Court of Common Pleas, Delaware County, September 3, 2003 [order vacating conviction]). According to Delaware County Assistant DA Joseph Brielmann, the DA’s office reviewed all available evidence, and “they have not uncovered enough information to proceed against Mr. Yarris. … In fairness to Mr. Yarris, we requested that the prosecution be dismissed.” (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 10, 2003; Pennsylvania v. Yarris, No 690-OF1982, Court of Common Pleas, Delaware County, December 9, 2003 [order of Nolle Prosequi]). District Attorney Michael Green said that he might be willing to offer an apology “in a private way.” (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 10, 2003). Yarris remains in custody, however, serving a sentence for the crimes committed during a 1985 escape in Florida. Florida and Pennsylvania officials are working to determine how much longer, if at all, Yarris will remain behind bars. (Philadelphia Inquirer and Los Angeles times, December 10, 2003)
Visit the offical homepage of Nick Yarris


Alan Gell
Conviction: 1998, Acquitted: 2004

Alan Gell was arrested for a 1995 robbery and murder of a retired truck driver named Allen Ray Jenkins. The two key witnesses presented by prosecutors were Gell’s ex-girlfriend and her best friend, who were both teenagers. Both girls, who were at Jenkins’ house and pled guilty to involvement in the murder, testified that they saw Gell shoot Jenkins on April 3, 1995. However, prosecutors withheld valuable evidence that might have cleared Gell in the initial trial, including an audio tape of one of the girls saying she had to “make up a story” about the murder. (News and Observer, December 10, 2002) In 2002, a State Superior Court Judge found that the prosecutors withheld evidence “favorable” to Gell, and vacated Gell’s conviction. (North Carolina v. Gell, No. 95 CRS 1884, Order (Superior Court of Bertie County, December 16, 2002) (Vacating conviction and granting new trial.) Gell was re-tried in February 2004. The defense team was able to present evidence that Gell was out of state or in jail at the time of Jenkins’ murder, which was placed closer to April 14th. This refuted the April 3rd claim by the original prosecutors. Also challenging the state’s timetable was a series of statements by as many as 17 witnesses who told investigators that they had seen Jenkins alive between April 7th and April 10th. The most important new evidence was the taped conversation mentioned above, in which the state’s key witness referred to making up a story about the murder. Gell was originally convicted in 1998 and spent the next four years on death row until a new trial was ordered. On February 18, 2004, a jury found Gell not guilty on all counts, and he left the court with his family. (PHOTO: Alan Gell (Center), leaves the Courthouse in Bertie Countie, North Carolina, with his sister Frankie and mother Jeanette following his exoneration for the 1995 murder of Allen Ray Jenkins. Photo courtesy Scott Lewis, News & Observer.) (News and Observer, February 18, 2004)
Read “Time of Death: A Murder Mystery” by Joseph Neff in The News and Observer
Read “Gells Files Suit Over Prosecution” by Joseph Neff in The News and Observer

Gordon “Randy” Steidl Illinois Conviction: 1987, Charges Dismissed: 2004 Gordon “Randy” Steidl was freed from an Illinois prison May 28, 2004, 17 years after he was wrongly convicted and sentenced to death for the 1986 murders of Dyke and Karen Rhoads. An Illinois State Police analysis in 2000 found that local police had severely botched their investigation, resulting in the wrongful conviction of Steidl and his co-defendant Herbert Whitlock. Due to the poor representation Steidl received at trial, a new sentencing hearing was granted in 1999. An appeals court reduced his sentence to life without parole. In 2003, federal judge Michael McCuskey overturned Steidl’s conviction completely and ordered a new trial, stating that if all the new evidence would have been presented at the original trial, it was “reasonably probable” that Steidl would have been acquitted by the jury (267 F. Supp. 2d 919 (C.D. Ill 2003)). The state reinvestigated the case, testing DNA evidence, but was not able to link Steidl to the crime.

The lack of concrete DNA evidence, coupled with the fact that the prosecution’s eyewitness to the murder recanted her statement, forced   State Attorney General Lisa Madigan and Edgar County prosecutors to drop the charges against Steidl. (Chicago Tribune, May 27, 2004).
Read Judge Michael McCuskey’s 2003 Retrial Order (PDF)
Read “The Snitch System” by Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Conviction

Laurence Adams Massachusetts Conviction: 1974, Charges Dismissed: 2004 Laurence Adams left a Massachusetts prison 30 years after his conviction for the 1972 robbery and murder of a transit worker in Boston. Superior Court Judge Robert Milligan overturned Adams’ conviction in 2004 because police had withheld important evidence. The District Attorney recommended that Adams be released on his own recognizance. (Boston Globe, May 20, 2004). Charges against Adams were formally dropped on June 7, 2004. (New York Times, June 8, 2004). Adams had been convicted at age 19 on the testimony of two witnesses, both of whom had unrelated charges against them dropped after their testimony. The government’s key witness testified that Adams had admitted to the offense in a discussion in a private home, but subsequently discovered records indicated that the witness was actually incarcerated at the time that he alleged the conversation took place. The witness was in fact incarcerated with one of a pair of brothers who were suspects in the case. The second witness recanted her testimony against Adams just prior to her death. The court-appointed attorney for Adams was also representing one of the two brothers at the same time he was representing Adams. (Boston Globe, May 21, 2004). Adams was originally sentenced to death in 1974, but the Massachusetts Supreme Court reduced his sentence to life imprisonment, after declaring the state’s death penalty statute unconstitutional. Adams had always maintained his innocence. He earned a bachelor’s degree in Sociology while in prison. Adams’ appellate attorney, J. J. Barter, said “it’s not a matter of him being there but not being culpable. He wasn’t there.” (Boston Globe, April 30, 2004).


Dan L. Bright 

Louisiana Conviction: 1996, Charges Dismissed: 2004

In 1996, Dan L. Bright was convicted of first-degree murder in Louisiana and was sentenced to death. On appeal, the Supreme Court of Louisiana found the evidence insufficient to support his conviction of first-degree murder and rendered a judgment of guilty of second-degree murder. (State v. Bright, 776 So.2d 1134 (La. 2000)). The trial court imposed a sentence of life without parole at hard labor. On May 25, 2004, the Supreme Court of Louisiana reversed Bright’s conviction, vacated the sentence, and remanded for a new trial holding that the state suppressed material evidence regarding the criminal history of the prosecution’s key witness, Freddie Thompson. The court noted that there was no physical evidence against Bright, and that Thompson’s testimony was the only evidence that served to convict him. Thompson was very drunk on the day of the crime. Moreover, the prosecution failed to disclose that he was a convicted felon and in violation of his parole. The court held that the specific facts of Thompson’s criminal record and the fact that he was still on parole when he testified against Bright raised questions about the veracity of his trial testimony: “This conviction, based on the facts of this case which include a failure to disclose what the State now admits is significant impeachment evidence, is not worthy of confidence and thus must be reversed.” Because material evidence had been withheld by the state, Bright’s conviction was overthrown. (See State of Louisiana v. Bright, No. 02-KP-2793, May 25, 2004). The prosecution subsequently dismissed all charges and Bright was freed. (See Associated Press, April 15, 2004; also conversation with Ben Cohen, attorney for Dan Bright, July 21, 2004).
Read “Name Dropping” by Katy Reckdahl in The Gambit Weekly

 Ryan Matthews Louisiana Conviction: 1999, Charges Dismissed: 2004 On Monday, August 9, 2004, Jefferson Parish prosecutors dropped all charges against 24-year-old Ryan Matthews, making him the nation’s latest death row inmate to be exonerated in the last 25 years, and the 14th death row inmate freed with the help of DNA testing. Shortly after his 17th birthday, Matthews was arrested for the murder of a local convenience store owner. Three individuals interviewed by police were unable to definitively identify Matthews, and witnesses described the murderer as short – no taller than 5’8″. Matthews is at least 6 feet tall. Matthews’ court appointed trial attorney was unprepared, and unable to handle the DNA evidence. On the third day of the trial, the judge ordered closing arguments, and sent the jury to deliberate. When they could not agree on a verdict after several hours, the judge ordered the jury to resume deliberations until a verdict was reached. Less than an hour later, the jury returned a guilty verdict and Matthews was sentenced to death two days later.

In March 2003, Matthews’ attorneys had the physical evidence (including a ski mask) re-tested. The DNA results excluded Matthews, and this time they pointed directly to another individual – one serving time for a murder that happened a few months after the convenience store murder and only blocks away. In April of 2004, based on the new DNA testing and findings that the prosecution suppressed evidence, District Attorney Paul Connick agreed that Matthews was entitled to a new trial (Los Angeles Times, August 10, 2004). Released into his mother’s care after she posted bond, Matthews was officially exonerated on August 9, 2004 when Connick dropped all of the charges against him. Prosecutors conceded that charges should never have been brought and stated that Matthews’ exoneration was “in the interest of justice.” (New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 9-11, 2004; Associated Press, August 11, 2004)

 Ernest Ray Willis Texas Conviction: 1987, Charges Dismissed: 2004
Ernest Ray Willis was sentenced to death for the 1986 deaths of two women who died in a house fire that was ruled an arson. Seventeen years later, Pecos County District Attorney Ori T. White revisited the case after a federal judge overturned Willis’ conviction. (Willis v. Cockrell, 2004 WL 1812698 (W.D.Tex.)) White hired an arson specialist to review t

he original evidence, and the specialist concluded that there was no evidence of arson. Willis, who was staying briefly at the house where the fire occurred, escaped from the house. Investigators believed they found an “accelerate” in the carpet. Officers at the scene of the blaze said that Willis had acted strangely, and prosecutors had Willis arrested. Despite limited evidence, Willis was indicted for murder and arson. Prosecutors used Willis’ dazed mental state at trial – the result of state-administered medication – to characterize Willis as “cold hearted” and as a “satanic demon.” Willis’ court-appointed lawyers, one of whom later surrendered his law license following drug charges, offered little defense. The attorneys spent a total of three hours with Willis, and as a result, Willis was found guilty and sentenced to death.The state’s new arson specialist revealed, however, that the “accelerate” initially suspected of causing the fire was in fact “flash over burning,” consistent with electrical fault fires. U. S. District Judge Royal Ferguson held that the state had administered medically inappropriate anti psychotic drugs without Willis’ consent; that the state suppressed evidence favorable to Willis; and that Willis received ineffective representation at both the guilt and sentencing phases of his trial. He ordered the state to either free Willis or retry him. The state attorney general’s office declined to appeal, and prosecutors dropped all charges against Willis. White, whose predecessors prosecuted Willis, said that Willis “simply did not do the crime. … I’m sorry this man was on death row for so long and that there were so many lost years.” (Los Angeles Times, October 7, 2004). Willis, who had no prior record, was released on October 6, 2004 with $100, ten days of medication, and the clothes on his back. (Los Angeles Times, Houston Chronicle, and Dallas Morning News, October 7, 2004).
Read “Death Isn’t Fair” by Micheal Hall in Texas Monthly
Read “After 17 Years…” by Maureen Balleza in The New York Times


Derrick Jamison Ohio Conviction: 1985, Charges Dismissed: 2005On February 28, 2005, Ohio Common Pleas Judge Richard Niehaus dismissed all charges against Derrick Jamison for the murder of a Cincinnati bartender after prosecutors elected not to retry him in the case. (Associated Press, March 3, 2005). On death row for 17 years, Jamison was a granted a new trial in 2002 when a court ruled that the prosecution had withheld critical eyewitness statements and other evidence from the defense. Jamison was originally convicted and sentenced to death in 1985 based in part on the testimony of Charles Howell, a co-defendant who received a lesser sentence

 in exchange for his testimony against Jamison. The prosecution withheld statements that contradicted Howell’s testimony and that would have undermined the prosecution’s theory of how the victim died, and would have pointed to other possible suspects for the murder. A federal judge ordered a new trial for Jamison in 2000, holding that Hamilton County Prosecutors withheld key evidence. The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision in 2002 (Jamison v. Collins, 291 F.3d 380 (6th Cir. 2002)).

One of the withheld statements involved James Suggs, an eyewitness to the robbery. Suggs testified at trial that he had been unable to make a positive identification when the police showed him a photo array of suspects. In fact, police records show that Suggs identified two suspects, neither of which was Derrick Jamison. Additional withheld evidence consisted of a series of discrepancies between Jamison’s physical characteristics and the descriptions of the perpetrators given to police investigators by eyewitnesses. The co-defendant, Howell recently testified that he could not remember anything about the crime, and state prosecutors decided not to proceed against Jamison. He remains incarcerated on other unrelated charges.

(See also, K. Perry, “’85 Murder Conviction Dismissed,” Cincinnati Post, Mar. 1, 2005).


Harold Wilson Pennslyvania Conviction: 1989, Acquitted: 2005More than 16 years after a Pennsylvania jury returned three death sentences against Harold Wilson, new DNA evidence has lead to his acquittal. Wilson was arrested the day after the April 10, 1988, slayings of Dorothy Sewell, 64; her nephew, Tryone Mason, 33; and Mason’s girlfriend, Cynthia Goines Mills, 40. The three were murdered with a carpenter’s ax inside Sewell’s home. At his 1989 trial, police testified that they found a jacket spattered with the victims’ blood in the basement of Wilson’s home. Wilson was convicted and sentenced to death. Wilson’s trial was conducted by Philadelphia Assistant District Attorney Jack McMahon, a man best known for his role in a training video that advised new Philadelphia prosecutors on how to use race in selecting death penalty juries.

In 1999, Wilson’s death sentence was overturned on state post-conviction review when a trial-level court determined that his defense counsel had failed to investigate and present mitigating evidence during his original trial. (Commonwealth v. Harold C. Wilson, Philadelphia Cnty. Com. PL.Nos. 3267-73, Aug.19, 1999). A subsequent appeal led the Pennsylvania Supreme Court to demand a new hearing in light of evidence that McMahon used racially discriminatory practices in jury selection. In 2003, a trial court found that McMahon had improperly exercised his peremptory strikes to eliminate potential black jurors and granted Wilson a new trial, a decision that the District Attorney’s office did not appeal. The court stated that in the new trial the death penalty could not be sought. The new jury, which did not have to be “death-qualified” and which was chosen without the prior race bias, acquitted Wilson of all charges on November 15, 2005. The defense relied heavily on new DNA evidence, which revealed that blood from the crime scene did not come from Wilson or any of the victims, thereby suggesting the involvement of another assailant. This type of DNA testing was simply not available at the time of the original trial.

(Associated Press, Nov. 18, 2005).


John Ballard Florida Conviction: 2003, Acquitted: 2006 The Florida Supreme Court unanimously overturned the conviction of death row inmate John Robert Ballard and ordered his acquittal in the 1999 murders of two of his acquaintances (Ballard v Florida, No.  SC03-1012, February 23, 2006). The Court concluded that the circumstantial evidence against Ballard was insufficient to sustain his conviction. The state’s primary evidence presented against Ballard was a hair and a fingerprint, both of which he could have left during his many visits to the victims’ apartment. Bloody fingerprints and 100 other hair samples were found associated with the crime scene, none of them belonging to Ballard, who has always maintained his innocence. The Supreme Court’s acquittal in this case was rare. In fact, since 1976 the Florida Supreme Court has acquitted only three people of all charges.

Jennifer Jones, one of the victims in the case, was a known drug dealer, and had been the target of gang violence in the past. However, the State Attorney never presented evidence ruling out gang violence, nor did the prosecutors address the suspected motive of robbery. The State Attorney General’s office said that it would not seek a rehearing in the case. At Ballard’s trial, only 9 of the 12 jurors recommended a death sentence. Yet the judge decided to sentence Ballard to death, commenting: “You have not only forfeited your right to live among us, but under the laws of the state of Florida, you have forfeited your right to live at all.” The Florida Supreme Court, in overturning this decision, held that the circumstantial evidence used in the case was insufficient to support an inference of guilt “to the exclusion of all other inferences.” (Ballard v Florida, No.  SC03-1012, February 23, 2006).

(Associated Press, Feb. 23, 2006; Miami Herald, Feb. 24, 2006; Ballard v. Florida, No. SC03-1012, Feb. 23, 2006).


Curtis Edward McCarty Oklahoma Conviction: 1986, Charges Dismissed: 2007
Curtis McCarty was released in May 2007 after District Court Judge Twyla Mason Gray ordered that the charges against him be dismissed. McCarty had spent the last 22 years behind bars for the murder of a police officer’s daughter in 1982; he spent 16 of those years on Oklahoma’s death row. Judge Gray ruled that the case against McCarty was tainted by the questionable testimony of former police chemist Joyce Gilchrist, who gave improper expert testimony about semen and hair evidence during McCarty’s trial.

Oklahoma County District Attorney David Prater said his office will not appeal Gray’s decision. According to the New York-based Innocence Project, an organization that assisted McCarty in his efforts to prove his innocence, Gilchrist falsely testified that hairs and other biological evidence showed that McCarty could have been the killer. In both trials, the juries convicted him and he was sentenced to death. In Gilchrist’s original notes, hairs from the crime scene did not match McCarty. She then changed her notes to say the hairs did match him. When the defense requested retesting, the hairs were lost. A judge has said Gilchrist either destroyed or willfully lost the hairs. DNA testing in recent years has also shown that another person raped the victim. McCarty’s has maintained his innocence since his arrest.Upon returning to his parent’s home in Moore, Oklahoma, McCarthy noted that his homecoming was like “landing on a new planet” and that he had “missed the entirety” of his adult life.(The Oklahoman, May 11, 2007)(The Oklahoman, May 11, 2007 and The Innocence Project)

Michael L. McCormick Tennessee Conviction: 1987, Acquitted: 2007 On December 5, 2007, a Tennessee jury acquitted Michael Lee McCormick of the 1985 murder of Donna Jean Nichols, a crime for which McCormick spent 16 years on death row. In his first trial, the prosecution introduced hair evidence from Nichols’ car that the FBI said matched McCormick. DNA testing later found that the hair did not match McCormick and this evidence was not permitted in the new trial. His original conviction was overturned in McCormick v. Tennessee (Court of Criminal Appeals of Tennessee, CCA no 03C01-9802-Cr-00052), when the court found that his original defense counsel was inadequate.

Two years after his conviction, evidence surfaced that an undercover officer had secretly recorded Mr. McCormick’s confession during a fake car theft. In his closing statement, Mr. McCormick’s attorney emphasized the prosecution’s reliance on a recorded confession by a man who “they knew to be an alcoholic and a notorious liar.” A juror, Anita Jinette admitted after the trial that McCormick’s reputation as a liar was important due to the fact that “we basically had nothing except his confession.”

McCormick’s attorney, Karla Gothard said after the trial, “We have been living with this case for years, and we are immensely relieved. I can’t imagine what Michael McCormick is feeling.” Special Judge Jon Kerry Black wood commented, “The way this case has lingered on, there has not been closure for Michael McCormick for 20 years. This system is not perfect, but somehow it works itself out.”

(“Jury Finds McCormick Not Guilty Of Killing Jeannie Nichols: Man Who Spent Years On Death Row To Go Free,” The Chattanooga, December 5, 2007).

Jonathon Hoffman North Carolina Conviction: 1995, Charges Dismissed: 2007 Prosecutors in North Carolina on December 11, 2007 dropped all charges against Jonathon Hoffman, who had been convicted and sentenced to death for the 1995 murder of a jewelry store owner. Hoffman won a new trial in 2004 (Order of the General Court of Justice Superior Court Division: 95-CRS-15695-97) because information favorable to Hoffman was withheld from the defense. During Hoffman’s first trial, the state’s key witness, Johnell Porter, received immunity from federal charges for testifying against his cousin. In fact, Porter received thousands of dollars for his testimony. Neither the defense attorney nor the judge knew of this deal—an omission that resulted in the criminal investigation of Ken Honeycutt and Scott Brewer, the prosecutors in the original trial.

Porter has since recanted his testimony, stating that he lied in order to get back at his cousin for stealing money from him. Defense attorney Joseph Cheshire stated, “I think in the last five to six years, there’s a fairly well-demonstrated pattern of wrongful convictions in North Carolina that are only now coming to light because of our new open discovery law.”

Hoffman, a black man charged with killing a white man, was tried and convicted by an all-white jury despite the fact that no physical evidence connected him to the murder of Danny Cook. He has been waiting for his new trial since in 2004, when allegations of prosecutorial misconduct first arose. Charges were finally dismissed in 2007 when the new District Attorney, John Snyder dropped the case due to “insufficient admissible evidence.” Jonathon Hoffman spent 12 years on death row.

(“Prosecutor Drops Charges Against Former Death Row Inmate,” by Martha Waggoner, Associated Press, December 11, 2007).


Kennedy Brewer Mississippi Conviction: 1995, Charges Dismissed: 2008 (released on bail in 2007)
Kennedy Brewer, who spent 12 years on Mississippi’s death row for the 1992 murder and rape of his girlfriend’s 3-year-old daughter, has been exonerated of the charges, and another man, Justin Johnson, has been arrested for the same crime. A 2001 investigation by the Innocence Project found that the semen on the victim’s body did not match Brewer’s DNA, but did match Johnson’s. Johnson was a suspect early in the case, and his blood was collected and preserved in the Mississippi State Crime Laboratory for more than 10 years. In 2007, Brewer was released on bond, pending a new trial after the Innocence Project and his attorney pushed for an appeal based upon the DNA test results. Despite the results of the 2001 DNA testing, the Mississippi Supreme Court denied Brewer’s request for a new trial in 2002. Brewer eventually won a retrial from a Lowndes County judge. According to the New York Times, District Attorney Ben Creekmore of Oxford, Mississippi, who took over the case when the previous D.A. recused himself, is preparing to file a motion dismissing all charges against Mr. Brewer.” Brewer’s attorney, Carrie Jourdan, said that Brewer is trying to get back into a normal life. She said, “He’s gainfully employed. He’s working and he’s living with his elderly, disabled mother, who he assists in taking care of. He has had no problems from a criminal legal standpoint” since he was released.
(“Man charged in child slaying for which another sentenced to death,” by Holbrook Mohr, Associated Press, February 7, 2008, “New Suspect Is Arrested in Mississippi Killings,” New York Times, February 8, 2008, Innocence Project’s Press Release, February 15, 2008)


Glen Edward Chapman North Carolina Conviction: 1994, Charges Dismissed: 2008

Glen Edward Chapman, a North Carolina man who was sentenced to death for the 1992 murders of Betty Jean Ramseur and Tenene Yvette Conley, was released from death row on April 2, 2008 after prosecutors dropped all charges against him. In 2007, North Carolina Superior Court Judge Robert C. Ervin granted Chapman a new trial, citing withheld evidence, “lost, misplaced or destroyed” documents, the use of weak, circumstantial evidence, false testimony by the lead investigator, and ineffective assistance of defense counsel. There was also new information from a forensic pathologist that raised doubts as to whether Conley’s death was a homicide or caused by an overdose of drugs.

Chapman’s lawyers, Frank Goldsmith and Jessica Leaven, were pleased with their client’s release. “Edward has always maintained, and we have always believed in, his innocence,” said Goldsmith. “Justice has not been served for the families of Ms. Ramseur and Ms. Conley, and we hope their deaths will be reinvestigated.” The state has also called for a re-opening of the investigation.

Judge Ervin found fault with Chapman’s defense attorneys at the original trial in 1994, one of whom has been disciplined by the North Carolina State Bar. The other defense attorney, Thomas Portwood, admitted drinking 12 shots of alcohol per day during a different death penalty trial. The defendant in that case, Ronald Frye, was executed in 2001.
(“Death Row Inmate Freed After 15 Years,”, April 2, 2008; also Press Release from attorneys Goldsmith and Leaven, April 2, 2008).

Levon “Bo” Jones North Carolina Conviction: 1993, Charges Dismissed: 2008 The state of North Carolina dropped all charges against Levon Jones, and he was freed May 2, 2008 after spending 13 years on death row. U.S. District Court Judge Terrence Boyle overturned Jones’s conviction two years ago, but he was held in prison awaiting a possible retrial until prosecutors announced that they were dismissing all charges. Judge Boyle criticized Jones’s defense attorneys for “constitutionally deficient” performance, noting their failure to research the history and credibility of Lovely Lorden, the prosecution’s star witness. The judge noted, “Given the weakness of the prosecution’s case and its heavy reliance on the testimony of Lovely Lorden, there is a reasonable probability that, but for counsel’s unprofessional errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different.”

In April, Jones’s new defense team filed an affidavit in which Lorden said, “Much of what I testified to was simply not true.” She also stated that a detective coached her on what to say. Additionally, she collected $4,000 from the governor’s office for offering the clues that led to the arrest of Jones.

Jones’s retrial was set to begin May 12th, 2008. Duplin County District Attorney Dewey Hudson decided to ask the judge in the case to drop all charges. Jones was originally convicted of robbing and shooting a bootlegger named Leamon Grady.
(Mandy Locke, “Death Row Inmate to go Free.” The News and Observer, May 2, 2008; see also J. Temple, “The Last Lawyer: The Fight to Save Death Row Inmates,” Univ. Press of Mississippi 2009).

 Michael Blair Texas Conviction: 1994, Charges Dismissed: 2008Michael Blair was sentenced to death for the 1993 murder of 7-year old Ashley Estell. In May 2008, following a re-investigation of the case by the Collin County prosecutor’s office, District Attorney John Roach announced that in light of the results of advanced DNA testing and the absence of any other evidence linking him to the crime, Mr. Blair’s conviction could no longer be upheld.The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals upheld the decision of the Collin County trial court that:”The post conviction DNA results and the evidence discovered in the    State’s new investigation have substantially eroded the State’s trial case against [applicant]. This new evidence in light of the remaining inculpatory evidence in the record, has established by clear and convincing evidence that no reasonable juror would have convicted [applicant] in light of newly discovered evidence.”

Although the court recommended that a new trial be granted, the prosecution, in light of the evidence, chose not to pursue a retrial. In a dismissal motion filed in August 2008, prosecutors determined that “this case should be dismissed in the interest of justice so that the offense charged in the indictment can be further investigated.” All charges against Mr. Blair in this case were dismissed in August 2008. He remains in prison serving out life sentences for other crimes.

“Court Dismisses Ashley’s Killer, cites DNA Test,” Associated Press, The Houston Chronicle, September 17, 2008; Ex Parte Michael Nawee Blair, Nos. AP-75,954 & AP-75,955, Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, June 25, 2008 at 3.


 Nathson Fields Illinois Conviction: 1986, Acquitted: 2009

Nathson Fields, 55, and a co-defendant were sentenced to death for the 1984 murders of two rival gang members. The original trial, however, was marred by corruption, as the the judge in the case, Circuit Judge Thomas Maloney, accepted a $10,000 bribe during the trial. Thomas Maloney, who died in 2008, was ultimately convicted and spent 13 years in prison for fixing murder trials.

As a result, Fields and co-defendant Earl Hawkins were granted new trials in 1998. Hawkins, who had admitted to killing 15 to 20 people, testified against Fields in exchange for a lesser sentence. However, at Fields’ retrial, Judge Vincent Gaughan found Hawkins “incredible,” saying that “If someone has such disregard for human life, what regard will he have for his oath?”

Fields spent almost twenty years in prison, including 11.5 years on death row. He was released on bond in 2003 while awaiting retrial and has been residing outside of Chicago. This is the 19th exoneration from death row in Illinois since 1973, which is second only to Florida in the number of exonerations. Following the not guilty verdict handed down by Judge Gaughan, Fields said, “I feel like my prayers have been answered…It’s been 24 years of this ordeal for my family and my friends, and now with it coming to an end, it’s like a dream come true.”(M. Walberg, “23 years after judicial misconduct, ex-gang leader freed,” Chicago Tribune, April 9, 2009). (R. Hussain, Man formerly on death row acquitted in retrial,” Chicago Sun-Times, April 8, 2009). See also People v. Hawkins, et al., 181 Ill.2d 41 (January 29, 1998) (upholding a circuit court’s reversal of Fields’ and Hawkins’ convictions).

Paul House Tennessee Conviction: 1986, Charges Dismissed: 2009  The state of Tennessee dropped all charges against House, who was charged with the 1985 murder of Carolyn Muncey.  The state alleged kidnapping or rape as aggravating factors, and House was sentenced to death.  Biological evidence from the victim’s clothes used against him at trial was later found through DNA testing to belong to Muncey’s husband. In House v. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court considered new DNA testing and questions about the victim’s blood stains on House’s clothes. In 2006, the Court held that no reasonable juror would have found House guilty based on this new evidence, thus entitling him to raise constitutional issues that then led to a reversal of his conviction. The case was remanded to the District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee, where Judge Harry Mattice vacated House’s conviction and sentence, but allowed Tennessee to pursue a new trial against him.  In 2008, a Tennessee judge ordered House released from prison, pending a new trial.  The state dismissed all charges on May 12, 2009 while expressing reservations about House’s complete innocence.

(See House v. Bell, No. 04-8990 U.S. (June 12, 2006);  House v. Bell, E.D. Tenn. (December 20, 2007); see also J. Satterfield, “Prosecutor drops murder charges against ex-death row inmate House,” Knoxville News Sentinel, May 12, 2009).

 Daniel Wade Moore Alabama Conviction: 2002, Acquitted: 2009 Daniel Wade Moore was acquitted of all charges by a jury in Alabama on May 14.  Moore was originally found guilty of the murder and sexual assault of Karen Tipton in 2002.  The judge overruled the jury’s recommendation of a life sentence and instead sentenced him to death in January 2003, calling the murder one of the worst ever in the county.  A new trial was ordered in 2003 because of evidence withheld by the prosecution.  (See State V. Moore, No. CR-04–0805, Ala. Ct. of Crim. App. (2206) (providing procedural summary at pp.2-3; the circuit judge’s order for a new trial was upheld by the Ala. Supreme Court, State v. Moore, No. Ms. 1030218, Nov. 6, 2003)).  A second trial in 2008 ended in a mistrial with the jury deadlocked at 8-4 for acquittal.Judge Glenn Thompson, who originally sentenced Moore to death, ordered a retrial upon discovery that the prosecution had withheld important evidence. “Orders were entered in any capital case, that whatever the state has, whatever the prosecutor has, whatever the investigation has they should provide that to the defendant,” said Judge Thompson.  The evidence missing was a 256-page F.B.I. report. “The prosecution, Mr. Valeska specifically, looked me in the eye and said, quote, ‘there ain’t no such thing as an F.B.I. report.’ Well, there probably wasn’t a report, but there were 256 pages of information collected by Decatur police officers that were sent to the F.B.I.,” said Judge Thompson.  According to Judge Thompson, Assistant Attorney General Don Valeska later came to him confessing there was withheld information.  “Mr. Valeska came forward with the information after the conviction,” said Judge Thompson. “Clearly, the only remedy was to grant him a new trial and I did,” he said. “It frustrated and angered me that he would be willing to lie to the court,” he continued.  Meanwhile, the Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals ordered Judge Thompson to stand down from the trial and continued to let Valeska prosecute Moore.

Upon hearing the jury’s not guilty verdict, Judge Thompson responded, “I felt like it was the only conclusion that a jury could reach if they actually followed the law.”  Thompson also said that the problems with the prosecution withholding evidence continued throughout the 10 years of the case.  Just days before the current trial started, the prosecution called the defense saying they had just found new evidence from the victim’s home computer.

(See A. Stuart, “Judge in Moore’s first trial discusses case,” WHNT (Alabama), May 18, 2009).

Ronald Kitchen Illinois Conviction: 1988, Charges Dismissed: 2009On July 7, 2009 Ronald Kitchen was exonerated and released from Illinois prison after spending twenty-one years in prison, including thirteen on death row.  His death sentence had been commuted to life without parole by former Illinois Governor George Ryan in 2003 as part of a blanket clemency grant.Kitchen and a co-defendant were found guilty of the murders of two women and three children in 1988.  His conviction was based primarily on a confession he gave to detectives under the command of discredited former Police Commander Jon Burge after hours of beating and threats by police.  Prosecutors also relied on the testimony of a friend of the defendants who was in prison for burglary.  This witness later recanted his testimony, and the prosecutors withheld from the defense that they released this witness from prison early in return for his testimony.The Chicago Sun-Times reported that “Illinois Assistant Attorney General Richard Schwind told Criminal Court Judge Paul Biebel that after an exhaustive review of both cases, the office determined it could not ‘sustain its burden of proof.'” The Attoney General’s office further said, “In this case it became extraordinarily clear that justice required the release of these two men.”Kitchen was reunited with his sons, one of whom was born while he was in prison, and his family.  He was represented by attorneys from the Bluhm Legal Clinic at Northwestern University School of Law.(See R. Hussain, “Charges dropped in 20 year-old murder case,” Chicago Sun-Times, July 7, 2009; M. Walberg and C. Sadovi, “2 inmates convicted in ’88 slayings to go free,”  Chicago BreakingNews Center, July 7, 2009; and M. Walberg, “Burge-linked cases: 2 men freed for five 1988 murders as prosecutors find insufficient evidence for retrial,”  Chicago Tribune, July 8, 2009)(Photo credit Bluhm Legal Clinic).

 Herman Lindsey Florida Conviction: 2006, Acquitted: 2009 In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court of Florida rendered a judgment of acquittal for Herman Lindsey who was convicted in 2006 of the murder of the clerk at the Big Dollar Pawn Shop, a murder that happened 12 years earlier.  Since his conviction, Lindsey has been on Florida’s death row.

The Court held that the evidence in the case was not sufficient to convict Lindsey.  They noted that the case was based completely on circumstantial evidence and that a special standard of review applies. “[T]he State failed to produce any evidence in this case placing Lindsey at the scene of the crime at the time of the murder. . . .Indeed, we find that the evidence here is equally consistent with a reasonable hypothesis of innocence.”  Lindsey v. State, No. SC 07-1167 (Fla. 2009).  The Court also found that the trial court had erred in denying Lindsey’s motion for a judgment of acquittal at the conclusion of the presentation of evidence.

Three of the justices concurred with the Court, but went further and stated that the State’s line of questioning of the defendant during the penalty phase improperly exceeded the permitted scope of cross-examination. “The prosecution‘s comments were not only improper, but were also prejudicial and made with the apparent goal of inflaming the jury.”  These Justices found that the inflammatory statements made during cross-examination would have affected the jury’s decision to impose the death penalty.

Ron Ishoy, a spokesman for the Broward County State Attorney’s Office, said the prosecution will not appeal the unanimous decision.

(See P. McMahon, “Broward death row inmate ordered set free,” Sun-Sentinel (FL), July 10, 2009; M. Caputo, “Florida Supreme Court frees Death Row Inmate in 1994 Broward murder,” Miami Herald , July 8, 2009).

 Michael Toney, Texas Conviction: 1999, Charges Dismissed: 2009

Toney was released from jail on September 2, 2009 after the state dropped all charges against him for a 1985 bombing that killed three people. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals overturned Toney’s conviction on December 17, 2008 because the prosecution had suppressed evidence relating to the credibility of its only two witnesses. (Ex parte Toney, AP-76,056 (Tex. Crim. App. December 17, 2008)).

The Tarrant County District Attorney’s Office subsequently withdrew from the case based on the misconduct findings. In September 2009, the Attorney General’s Office, which had been specially appointed to the case in the wake of Tarrant County’s withdrawal, dismissed the indictment against Toney. He had consistently maintained his innocence. The case had gone unsolved for 14 years until a jail inmate told authorities that Toney had confessed to the crime. The inmate later recanted his story, saying he had hoped to win early release. The state said it is continuing its investigation into the murders. Toney was killed in an automobile accident one month after his release. The state said it is continuing its investigation into the murders.(A. Branch, “Man convicted in bombing dies in wreck 1 month after his release,” Ft. Worth Star-Telegram, Oct. 4, 2009 (including picture); also email from J. Tyler, Texas Defender Service, Oct. 4, 2009)

 Yancy Douglas and Paris Powell, Oklahoma Conviction: 1995 (Douglas), 1997 (Powell), Charges Dismissed: 2009

Oklahoma District Attorney David Prater dropped charges against Yancy Douglas (left),35, and Paris Powell (right), 36, after deciding the state’s key witness was unreliable.  “Ethically, and on my duty, I could not proceed in this case and had to dismiss it,” Prater said. Derrick Smith, a rival gang member to the defendants and the state’s main witness, was one of the apparent targets in the shooting. A federal appeals court in 2006 found that Smith had received a deal from the prosecutors that was not revealed to the defense and overturned the conviction of Powell but denied relief to Douglas. Smith testified against Powell and Douglas in their separate trials, but later admitted he never saw who shot him, that he was drunk and high that night, and that he testified only because prosecutors had threatened him with more prison time.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit reviewed the District Court’s findings in 2009.  With respect to Mr. Powell, the Circuit Court affirmed the lower court, stating, “we agree with the district court that Mr. Powell’s trial did not yield a verdict worthy of confidence.”  (Slip opin. at 39, citation below). With respect to Mr. Douglas, the Circuit Court held, “Assessing the prosecutor’s egregious conduct in light of the trial record leaves us with grave doubt about the validity of the jury’s verdict and persuades us that Mr. Douglas is entitled to habeas relief from his capital murder conviction.” (Slip opin. at 83).

At the time of their release, the District Attorney added, “We all came to the opinion that without Derrick Smith, we did not have a case we could prove beyond a reasonable doubt.” Jack Fisher, Powell’s attorney, said his client has always maintained his innocence and that Powell’s release is “bittersweet. It should have happened a long time ago. It’s unfortunate that he had to spend 16 years of his life in jail. What it boils down to is they had no evidence he was guilty. The testimony that they used to convict him was false.”

(S. Murphy, “Two ex-death row inmates released from Oklahoma prison,” Associated Press, October 5, 2009; R. Surette, “Why 2 Death Row Inmates Were Set Free,”, Oct. 6, 2009).  See YANCY LYNDELL DOUGLAS v. RANDALL G. WORKMAN, Warden, and PARIS LAPRIEST POWELL v. WORKMAN, Nos. 01-6094 & 06-6091, and Nos. 06-6093 & 06-6102 (10th Cir. Mar. 26, 2009) (per curiam).

Robert Springsteen, Texas conviction: 2001, Charges dismissed: 2009 On October 28, 2009, Travis County, Texas, prosecutors moved to dismiss all charges against Michael Scott and Robert Springsteen, who had been convicted of the murder of four teens in an Austin yogurt shop in 1991.

Springsteen was convicted in 2001; Scott in 2002.)  Springsteen had been sentenced to death and Scott was sentenced to life in prison.  The convictions of both men were overturned by the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals because they had not been adequately allowed to cross examine each other. (See Springsteen v. Texas, No. AP-74,223 (May 24, 2006)).  State District Judge Mike Lynch had released the defendants on bond in June, pending a possible retrial by the state.  However, sophisticated DNA analysis of evidence from the crime scene did not match either defendant and the prosecution announced it was not prepared to go to trial.  The judge accepted the state’s motion to dismiss all charges.  Prosecutors are still trying to match the DNA from crime with a new defendant.

“This has been a long time coming,” said Scott, once charges were dropped, “and I’m happy to be here.”  Both Scott and Springsteen implicated themselves at the time of their arrest, 8 years after the crime.  However, both claimed that their statements had been coerced by police.  The police investigation had been compromised from the start because the building had been set on fire, and thousands of gallons of water were poured on the crime scene before an investigation was carried out. Travis County District Attorney Rosemary Lehmberg issued a statement that said in part: “Make no mistake, this is a difficult decision and one I would rather not have to make.”(S. Kreytak, “Charges dismissed in yogurt shop case,” Austin American-Statesman, October 28, 2009; see also J. Vertuno, “Murder counts tossed in Texas yogurt shop slayings,” Associated Press, Oct. 29, 2009).


 Anthony Graves, Texas conviction: 1994, Charges dismissed: 2010

Anthony Graves (pictured) was released from a Texas prison on October 27 after Washington-Burleson County District Attorney Bill Parham filed a motion to dismiss all charges that had resulted in Graves being sent to death row 16 years ago. Graves was convicted in 1994 of assisting Robert Carter in multiple murders in 1992. There was no physical evidence linking Graves to the crime, and his conviction relied primarily on Carter’s testimony that Graves was his accomplice. Two weeks before Carter was scheduled to be executed in 2000, he provided a statement saying he lied about Graves’s involvement in the crime. He repeated that statement minutes before his execution. In 2006, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit overturned Graves’s conviction and ordered a new trial after finding that prosecutors elicited false statements and withheld testimony that could have influenced the jurors. (Graves v. Dretke, No. 05-70011, U.S. 5th Cir. Mar. 6, 2006). After D.A. Parham began to reassemble the case and review the evidence, he hired former Harris County assistant district attorney Kelly Siegler as a special prosecutor. Siegler soon realized that making a case against Graves would be impossible: “After months of investigation and talking to every witness who’s ever been involved in this case, and people who’ve never been talked to before, after looking under every rock we could find, we found not one piece of credible evidence that links Anthony Graves to the commission of this capital murder. This is not a case where the evidence went south with time or witnesses passed away or we just couldn’t make the case anymore. He is an innocent man,” Siegler said.

(B. Rogers, “Prisoner ordered free from Texas’ death row,” Houston Chronicle, October 28, 2010).


Gussie Vann, Tennessee conviction: 1994, Charges dismissed: 2011

Vann was originally convicted and sentenced to death in 1994 for a sexual assault and murder of his own daughter, Necia Vann, in 1992. However, in 2008 following state post-conviction review, Circuit Court Senior Judge Donald P. Harris held that Vann was entitled to a new trial because his defense attorneys failed to hire forensic experts to challenge the state’s allegations of sexual abuse.  (Vann v. State, Order, Post-conviction No. 99-312, 10th Judicial Dist., McMinn Cty., May 28, 2008). Judge Harris wrote that this failure led to Vann being convicted on “inaccurate, exaggerated and speculative medical testimony.”   (Id. Memorandum, at 23).   At the post-conviction hearing, forensic experts contradicted the state’s earlier testimony and said there were no signs of recent sexual abuse on the victim. Judge Harris described the failings of Vann’s original attorneys as “not only prejudicial, but disastrous.” (Id.)  The state elected not to appeal this ruling, though it did try to find grounds for a conviction on a lesser offense. Ultimately all charges were dropped by the state on September 22, 2011.


Joe D’Ambrosio, Ohio conviction: 1989, Charges dismissed: 2012

On January 23, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal by the state of Ohio challenging the unconditional writ of habeas corpus and bar to the re-prosecution of Joe D’Ambrosio (pictured), thus ending the capital case. He has now been freed from death row with all charges dismissed.  A federal District Court had first overturned D’Ambrosio’s conviction in 2006 because the state had withheld key evidence from the defense.  The federal court originally allowed the state to re-prosecute him, but just before trial the state revealed the existence of even more important evidence and requested further delay.  Also the state did not divulge in a timely manner that the key witness against D’Ambrosio had died.  In 2010, the District Court barred D’Ambrosio’s re-prosecution because of the prosecutors’ misconduct. The court concluded that these developments biased D’Ambrosio’s chances for a fair trial, and hence the state was barred from retrying him. District Court Judge Kathleen O’Malley wrote:  “For 20 years, the State held D’Ambrosio on death row, despite wrongfully withholding evidence that ‘would have substantially increased a reasonable juror’s doubt of D’Ambrosio’s guilt.’ Despite being ordered to do so by this Court … the State still failed to turn over all relevant and material evidence relating to the crime of which D’Ambrosio was convicted. Then, once it was ordered to provide D’Ambrosio a constitutional trial or release him within 180 days, the State did neither. During those 180 days, the State engaged in substantial inequitable conduct, wrongfully retaining and delaying the production of yet more potentially exculpatory evidence… To fail to bar retrial in such extraordinary circumstances surely would fail to serve the interests of justice.”

In 2011, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit upheld the bar to re-prosecution.  (D’Ambrosio v. Bagley, No. 10-3247, Aug. 29, 2011).  Even the dissent referred to the state’s “remarkable inability to competently prosecute D’Ambrosio.”  The state appealed this decision to the U.S. Supreme Court mainly on jurisdictional grounds, but was denied certiorari on Jan. 23.  (Bagley v. D’Ambrosio, No. 11-672, denying cert.).D’Ambrosio is 140th former death row inmate to be exonerated since 1973 and the 6th from Ohio.  He was first indicted for the offense in 1988.(See D’Ambrosio v. Bagley, 6th Cir., No. 10-3247, August 29, 2011; see also DPIC’s prior post; current post Jan. 23, 2012).

Damon Thibodeaux, Louisiana conviction: 1997, Charges dismissed: 2012On September 28 2012, Damon Thibodeaux was freed from death row in Louisiana after an extensive investigation, including DNA testing and the cooperation of Jefferson Parrish District Attorney Paul Connick. Thibodeaux was sentenced to death for the 1996 rape and murder of his cou

sin. He at first confessed to the attack after a nine-hour interrogation by detectives. He recanted a few hours later and claimed his confession was coerced.  In releasing Thibodeaux, Connick said, “I have concluded that the primary evidence in this case, the confession, is unreliable. Without the confession the conviction can’t stand, and therefore in the interest of justice, it must be vacated.”

Thibodeaux spent 15 years on death row in Angola. The reinvestigation of the case cost more than $500,000, an expense shared by the defense and prosecution.  Regarding his early statement to the police, Thibodeaux noted, “They look for vulnerable points where they can manipulate you, and if you’re sleep-deprived or panicked, or you’re on something or drunk, it makes it that much easier to accomplish what they want to accomplish…. I was willing to tell them anything they wanted me to tell them if it would get me out of that interrogation room.”(D. Blackmon, “Louisiana death-row inmate Damon Thibodeaux exonerated with DNA evidence,” Washington Post, September 28, 2012).

Seth Penalver, Florida conviction: 1999, Acquitted: 2012On December 21, Seth Penalver was acquitted of all charges and will be freed from Florida‘s death row, 13 years after being sentenced to death. He was originally

charged with a triple murder and armed robbery that occurred in Broward County in 1994.  His first trial ended with a deadlocked jury.  At his second trial in 1999, he was convicted and sentenced to death. In 2006, the Florida Supreme Court (Penalver v. Florida, No. SC00-1602, Feb. 2, 2006) overturned his conviction because the prosecution had introduced improper evidence at his trial. A co-defendant, Pablo Ibar, was also sentenced to death and remains on death row. A video from the crime scene helped convict Ibar, but images showing another suspect were inconclusive. Penalver has always maintained his innocence. At Penalver’s most recent trial, which began 5 months ago, the jury was deadlocked 10-2, and both the prosecution and defense agreed to replace two jurors with alternates who had attended the proceedings. The newly constituted jury began deliberations afresh and found Penalver not guilty of all charges. Penalver is the 142nd person to be exonerated and freed from death row since 1973, and the 24th such person in Florida, the most of any state.

(R. Olmeda, “Jury finds Penalver not guilty in Casey’s Nickelodeon triple murder case,” Sun Sentinel, Dec. 21, 2012).

Reginald Griffin, Missouri conviction: 1983, Charges Dismissed: 2013

Missouri dismissed all charges related to his death sentence on October 25. (Associated Press, “Ex-death row inmate exonerated in prison stabbing,” Oct. 30, 2013. Missouri’s Attorney General Chris Koster said it was “the appropriate and ethical decision at this time.”). Griffin had been sentenced to death for the murder of a fellow inmate in 1983. His conviction was overturned in 2011 by the Missouri Supreme Court (Griffin v. Denney, No. SC91112, Aug. 2, 2011) because the state had withheld critical evidence. Griffin’s conviction relied on the testimony of two jailhouse informants who received benefits in exchange for their testimony. Prosecutors withheld evidence that guards had confiscated a sharpened screwdriver from another inmate, Jeffrey Smith, immediately after the stabbing. Both of Griffin’s co-defendants consistently said the third person involved in the crime was Smith, not Griffin. Cyndy Short, the current lead attorney for Griffin, said, “Reggie and his family are overjoyed. This has been a massive weight upon them all for three decades.”

In overturning Griffin’s conviction, the Missouri Supreme Court said, “There is no physical evidence connecting Griffin to the weapon found in the gymnasium. There is no physical evidence demonstrating any contact between Griffin and Bausley. Instead, Griffin’s continued incarceration for Bausley’s murder is premised on the recanted testimony of inmate Curtis and the impeached testimony of deceased inmate Mozee. Overlaying the entire case is the revelation that the State failed to disclose evidence that tended to implicate Smith, impeach Curtis and Mozee, and bolster the trial testimony of inmate Rogers, who maintained that the inmate fleeing the crime scene was not Griffin.” (at 9).
See also DPIC’s Press Release.


Glenn Ford, Louisiana conviction: 1984, Charges Dismissed: 2014

Ford had spent 30 years on Louisiana’s death row and was freed after prosecutors filed motions to vacate his conviction and sentence. Louisiana Judge Ramona Emanuel ordered Glenn Ford to be “unconditionally released from the custody of the Louisiana Department of Corrections” on March 11, 2014 Prosecutors said they had received “credible evidence” that Ford “was neither present at, nor a participant in, the robbery and murder” of which he was convicted in 1984. Ford, who has always maintained his innocence, was tried and sentenced to death by an all-white jury. One of the witnesses against him said at trial that police had helped her make up her story. A state “expert” who testified about the victim’s time of death had not even examined the body. Ford’s lead trial attorney had never tried a jury case before. A second attorney, two years out of law school, worked at an insurance defense firm. They failed to hire any experts to rebut the prosecution’s case because they believed they would have to pay for the experts themselves. The Louisiana Supreme Court earlier said it had “serious questions” about the outcome of the trial, but did not reverse Ford’s conviction. Ford may have been involved in trying to pawn jewelry from the victim that he received from one of the original codefendants.(A. Cohen, “After 30 Years on Death Row, an Innocent Man in Louisiana is About to Go Free,” The Atlantic, March 11, 2014.  KTAL NBC News, Mar. 11, 2014).

Carl Dausch, Florida conviction: 2011, Acquitted: 2014On June 12, the Supreme Court of Florida (6-1) overturned the convictions and death sentence of Carl Dausch because the state presented insufficient evidence of his guilt at trial. The Court directed that he be acquitted of all offenses, stating, “[T]he record lacks sufficient evidence of the perpetrator’s identity.” Dausch was convicted primarily on fingerprints and DNA from a cigarette butt that were found in the victim’s car. DNA evidence taken from the victim was less definitive. Dausch said he had hitchhiked while returning home from a family vacation, and the person who picked him up was likely the actual killer. Because the evidence against Dausch was circumstantial, the court applied a “special standard of review,” which required “that the circumstances lead ‘to a reasonable and moral certainty that the accused and no one else committed the offense charged. It is not sufficient that the facts create a strong probability of, and be consistent with, guilt. They must be inconsistent with innocence.” The Court said the evidence only linked Dausch to the victim’s car, not to the murder itself.(B. Farrington, “Supreme Court throws out conviction in ’87 killing,” Associated Press, June 12, 2014;  see Dausch v. Florida, No. SC12-1161 (June 12, 2014), per curiam). Dausch remains in prison in another state on unrelated charges.
Henry McCollum and 147. Leon Brown, North Carolina conviction: 1984, Charges Dismissed: 2014The two brothers who were convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 1984, were freed because of evidence uncovered by the North Carolina Innocence Inquiry Commission. McCollum was 19 and Brown was 15 when they confessed to the rape and murder of 11-year-old Sabrina Buie. Both men are intellectually disabled – McCollum has an IQ in the 60s and Brown has scored as low as 49 on IQ tests. McCollum and Brown have maintained their innocence since their trial, saying they were unaware they were signing a confession. “I’d never been under such pressure, people yelling and screaming at me,” McCollum said of his interrogation. “I was scared, and was just trying to get out of that police station and go home.” In 2010, Brown, who is now serving a life sentence for rape after his murder conviction was thrown out, contacted the Innocence Commission about his case. The Commission found DNA evidence near the crime scene belonging to another man, Roscoe Artis, who was sentenced to death for a crime similar to the one for which McCollum and Brown were sentenced to death. (Artis’ sentence was later reduced to life without parole.) On September 2, a Robeson County judge freed both men based on DNA evidence..(M. Biesecker “NC half brothers freed after 3 decades in prison,” News and Observer, September 3, 2014).


Ricky Jackson, Ohio conviction: 1975, Charges Dismissed: 2014 Former death row inmate Ricky Jackson was exonerated on November 21 in Ohio, after spending 39 years in prison. A judge in Cleveland dismissed all charges against Jackson, with the prosecution in agreement. Jackson was one of three men convicted of the 1975 murder of Harold Franks. The other two defendants, Ronnie (now Kwame Ajamu) and Wiley Bridgeman, were also sentenced to death and have filed a petition for a new trial. Jackson’s death sentence was vacated earlier, and the Bridgeman brothers’ sentences were overturned when Ohio’s death penalty was found unconstitutional in 1978. The men were convicted on the testimony of a 12-year-old boy who later recanted his testimony, and who now has said he did not witness the crime at all. Several people confirmed the boy was on a school bus at the time of the crime. No other evidence linked the men to the murder. A gun and car seen at the crime scene were linked to a man who was arrested in 1978 for another murder, but he was never charged in Franks’ murder. In dropping the charges against Jackson, Cuyahoga County Prosecutor Timothy McGinty said, “The state is conceding the obvious.” Ricky Jackson became the seventh person exonerated from death row in Ohio since 1973. Upon his release, Jackson said, “The English language doesn’t even fit what I’m feeling. I’m on an emotional high. You sit in prison for so long and think about this day but when it actually comes you don’t know what you’re going to do, you just want to do something.”(K. Palmer, “Ohio man exonerated after 39 years in prison, to be released Friday,” Reuters, November 20, 2014).
Wiley Brdigeman, Ohio conviction: 1975, Charges Dismissed: 2014

An Ohio judge formally dismissed all charges against
Wiley Bridgeman, making him the 149th person exonerated from death row since 1973. Cuyahoga County, Ohio, prosecutors filed a motion to drop murder charges against Ricky Jackson and his co-defendants, Wiley Bridgeman and Kwame Ajamu. The three men were convicted of murder in 1975 on the testimony of a 12-year-old boy who has since recanted and said he did not witness the crime. All three were sentenced to death. Bridgeman once came within three weeks of execution, but his and Ajamu’s death sentences were struck down when Ohio’s death penalty was found unconstitutional in 1978. Ajamu had been released from prison in 2003, but Jackson and Bridgeman spent 39 years in prison. Both were released on November 21. Judge Richard McMonagle, who presided over the hearing considering the case, said, “Life is filled with small victories, and this is a big one.” Charges will likely be dismissed against Ajamu soon.(M. Gillispie, “Judge dismisses two men charged in 1975 slaying,” Associated Press, November 21, 2014).


Kwame Ajamu
Ronnie Bridgeman, now known as Kwame Ajamu, gets a hug from Judge Pamela A Barker after charges were dismissed against Ajamu Tuesda.Having just exonerated Kwame Ajamu, Judge Pamela Barker stepped down from the bench on Tuesday, leaned across the defense table and gave him a hug.It had taken nearly 40 years, but Ajamu was no longer a convicted murderer.Moments earlier, Barker had dismissed his charges and county prosecutor Tim McGinty had conveyed a message through an assistant that Ajamu; his brother, Wiley Bridgeman; and their friend Ricky Jackson“have been the victims of a terrible injustice”.The three had been convicted and sentenced to death in the slaying of a businessman outside on a corner store on a warm spring day in 1975. The case against them unraveled last year when the prosecution’s star witness recanted his testimony.The witness, Eddie Vernon, was 12 when Harry Franks was killed and 13 when he testified against the three men at their trials in 1975. Vernon said in court last month and in an affidavit that he had been coerced by Cleveland police.Ajamu, then known as Ronnie Bridgeman, was 17 when he was sent to death row. Jackson was 19, and Wiley Bridgeman was 20. Their death sentences were later commuted to life terms.Ajamu was released from prison in 2003. Jackson and Wiley Bridgeman had been imprisoned until recently and were freed on 21 November.McGinty’s office had said little about the dismissals. But on Tuesday, he absolved all three of their crimes and said he would not oppose any claims of innocence, which will speed the civil process by which the men are compensated for having been wrongfully incarcerated.The prosecutor’s concession seemed to astonish longtime Cleveland civil rights and defense attorney Terry Gilbert, who represents Ajamu and Wiley Bridgeman.“To recognize an injustice … it gives me faith and hope in this criminal justice system that good things can come out of it from time to time,” Gilbert told Barker.Ajamu, 57, has rebuilt his life. He is married to a woman he met in downtown Cleveland in 2003 when she couldn’t find the right bus and he rode with her to her destination. They married the next year after she proposed to him. Ajamu called Lashawn Ajamu his best friend and greatest supporter.After Barker dismissed the charges, Kwame Ajamu told the handful of people in the courtroom that he was overjoyed and that “this room is lit with the truth”.

“It’s my hope going forward that we don’t have to wait another 40 years for the next Kwame Ajamu, Wiley Bridgeman, Ricky Jackson,” he said. “It’s my hope from this day on we can stop ignoring what is obvious in the criminal justice system and move forward with peace and love.”

After the hearing, Ajamu credited Kyle Swenson, a writer for Scene Magazine, who in 2011 dug into the men’s stories and exposed how justice had been subverted.

Ajamu said he hoped one day to meet with Eddie Vernon, who is now 52, so he can tell him he understands what happened and has no ill will toward him. Ajamu said his full exoneration finally makes him feel free to go anywhere he wants, anytime he’d like.

“I can even go back to being Ronnie Bridgeman, but I’m not,” he said. “They killed Ronnie Bridgeman. They killed his spirit. They killed everything he believed in, everything he ever wanted. I wanted to be something, too. I could have been a lawyer possibly. I could have been Barack Obama. Who knows?”






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Welcome to Who Decides, Inc. Who Decides, Inc. is a public-benefit organization. As a national network of activists, volunteers and dedicated people, we are committed to using various mediums of art such as creative writing, plays, visual art, dance, music and film as a way of educating society about the practice and history of capital punishment in America. The public events and forums that we present explore more than 400 years of the U.S. death penalty from all perspectives: the crime, the victims, the condemned, the methods of execution, and the laws. Our ultimate goal at Who Decides is to preserve the history of this controversial practice by establishing a national museum on the death penalty. This national museum will serve as an educational institution devoted to collecting, studying, exhibiting and interpreting America's extensive history on capital punishment.

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